Liberty Broadband Corporation
Liberty Broadband Corp (Form: 10-K, Received: 02/12/2016 17:31:21)

Table of Contents

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D. C. 20549

FORM 10-K

  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fis cal year ended December 31, 2015  

OR

  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                             to

Commission File Number 001-36713

LIBERTY BROADBAND CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

State of Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

47- 1211994  

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

12300 Liberty Boulevard

Englewood, Colorado

(Address of principal executive offices)

80112

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (720) 875-5700

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

Title of each class

 

Name of exchange on which registered

Series A Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Series C Common Stock, par value $.01 per share

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

(do not check if

smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes      No 

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of Liberty Broadband Corporation computed by reference to the last sales price of such stock, as of the closing of trading on the last trading day prior to June 30, 201 5 , was $4.7 billion .  

The number of outstanding shares of Liberty Broadband Corporation common stock as of January 31, 2016 was:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A

 

Series B

 

Series C

 

Liberty Broadband Corporation common stock

 

26,176,694

 

2,467,547

 

74,672,640

 

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

The Registrant's definitive proxy statement for its 201 6 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is hereby incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

LIBERTY BROADBAND

CORPORATION

201 5 ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10 K

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Part I

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.  

 

Business

 

I- 1

Item 1A.  

 

Risk Factors

 

I- 24

Item 1B.  

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

I- 52

Item 2.  

 

Properties

 

I- 52

Item 3.  

 

Legal Proceedings

 

I- 52

Item 4.  

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

I- 55

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.  

 

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

II- 1

Item 6.  

 

Selected Financial Data

 

II- 2

Item 7.  

 

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

II- 4

Item 7A.  

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

II- 17

Item 8.  

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

II- 17

Item 9.  

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

II- 17

Item 9A.  

 

Controls and Procedures

 

II- 17

Item 9B.  

 

Other Information

 

II- 18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.  

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

III- 1

Item 11.  

 

Executive Compensation

 

III- 1

Item 12.  

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

III- 1

Item 13.  

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

III- 1

Item 14.  

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

III- 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.  

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

IV- 2

 


 

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PART I .

Item 1.  Business .

(a) General Development of Business

During May 2014, the board of directors of Liberty Media Corporation and its subsidiaries ( Liberty ) authorized management to pursue a plan to spin - off to its stockholders common stock of a wholly - owned subsidiary, Liberty Broadband Corporation ( Liberty Broadband ), and to distribute subscription rights to acquire shares of Liberty Broadband s common stock (the Broadband Spin - Off ). At 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on November 4, 2014 the Broadband Spin-Off was completed and shares of Liberty Broadband common stock were distributed to the shareholders of Liberty as of a record date of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on October 29, 2014. Liberty Broadband is comprised of, among other things, (i) Liberty’s former  interest in Charter Communications, Inc. (“Charter”), (ii)  Liberty’s former wholly-owned subsidiary TruePosition, Inc. (“TruePosition”), (iii)  Liberty’s former minority equity investment in Time Warner Cable, Inc. (“Time Warner Cable or “TWC” ), (iv) certain deferred tax liabilities, as well as liabilities related to the Time Warner Cable written call option s and (v) initial indebtedness, pursuant to margin loans entered into prior to the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The Broadband Spin-Off was accounted for at historical cost due to the pro rata nature of the distribution to holders of Liberty common stock.

In the Broadband Spin-Off, record holders of Liberty Series A, Series B and Series C common stock receive d one-fourth of a share of the corresponding series of Liberty Broadband common stock for each share of Liberty common stock held by them as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on October 29, 2014 ( the record date ) for the Broadband Spin-Off, with cash paid in lieu of fractional shares.   In addition, following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off, on December 10, 2014, stockholders received a subscription right to acquire one share of Series C Liberty Broadband common stock for every five shares of Liberty Broadband common stock they held as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time on December 4, 2014 (the rights record date) at a per share subscription price of $40.36, which was a 20% discount to the 20-trading day volume weighted average trading price of the Series C Liberty Broadband common stock following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The rights offering was fully subscribed on January 9, 2015, with 17,277,224 shares of Series C common stock issued to those rightsholders exercising basic and, as applicable, oversubscription privileges. The subscription rights were issued to raise capital for general corporate purposes of Liberty Broadband. The Broadband Spin-Off and rights offering were   intended to be tax-free to stockholders of Liberty and Liberty Broadband, respectively .   During September 2015, Liberty entered into a closing agreement with the IRS which provided that the Broadband Spin-Off qualified for tax-free treatment.

Spin - Off of Liberty Broadband from Liberty Media Corporation

Following the Broadband Spin - Off, Liberty and Liberty Broadband operate as separate, publicly traded companies, and neither has any stock ownership, beneficial or otherwise, in the other. In connection with the Broadband Spin - Off, Liberty and Liberty Broadband enter ed into certain agreements in order to govern certain of the ongoing relationships between the two companies after the Broadband Spin - Off and to provide for an orderly transition. These agreements include a reorganization agreement, a services agreement, a facilities sharing agreement and a tax sharing agreement.

The reorganization agreement provide s for, among other things, the principal corporate transactions (including the internal restructuring) required to effect the Broadband Spin - Off, certain conditions to the Broadband Spin - Off and provisions governing the relationship between Liberty Broadband and Liberty with respect to and resulting from the Broadband Spin -Off. The tax sharing agreement provide s for the allocation and indemnification of tax liabilities and benefits between Liberty and Liberty Broadband and other agreements related to tax matters. Pursuant to the tax sharing agreement, Liberty Broadband has agreed to indemnify Liberty, subject to certain limited exceptions, for losses and taxes resulting from the Broadband Spin-Off to the extent such losses or taxes result primarily from, individually or in the aggregate, the breach of certain restrictive covenants made by Liberty Broadband (applicable to actions or failures to act by Liberty Broadband and its subsidiaries following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off). Pursuant to the services agreement, Liberty provide s Liberty Broadband with general and administrative services including legal, tax, accounting, treasury and investor relations support. Under the facilities sharing ag reement, Liberty Broadband share s office space with Liberty and related amenities at Liberty s corporate headquarters. Liberty Broadband will reimburse Liberty for direct, out - of - pocket expenses incurred by Liberty in providing these services and for costs that will be negotiated semi - annually.

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Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements regarding our business, product and marketing strategies; new service offerings; the recoverability of our goodwill and other long-lived assets; the performance of our equity affiliate; our projected sources and uses of cash; and the anticipated non-material impact of certain contingent liabilities related to legal and tax proceedings and other matters arising in the ordinary course of business. In particular, statements under Item 1. "Business," Item 1A. "Risk-Factors," Item 2. "Properties," Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Item 7A. "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" contain forward-looking statements.  Forward - looking statements inherently involve many risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected in these statements. Where, in any forward - looking statement, we express an expectation or belief as to future results or events, such expectation or belief is expressed in good faith and believed to have a reasonable basis, but such statements necessarily involve risks and uncertainties and there can be no assurance that the expectation or belief will result or be achieved or accomplished. T he following include some but not all of the factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those anticipated:

·

Charter s abil ity to sustain and grow revenue and cash flow from operations by offering video, Internet, voice, advertising and other services to residential and commercial customers, to adequately meet the customer experience demands in its markets and to maintain and grow its customer base, particularly in the face of increasingly aggressive competition, the need for innovation and the related capital expenditures;

·

the impact of competition from other market participants, including but not limited to incumbent telephone companies, direct broadcast satellite operators, wireless broadband and telephone providers, digital subscriber line (“ DSL ”)  p roviders, video provided over the Internet and providers of advertising over the Internet ;

·

general business conditions, economic uncertainty or downturn, high unemployment levels and the level of activity in the housing sector;

·

Charter s ability to obtain programming at reasonable prices or to raise prices to offset, in whole or in part, the effects of higher programming costs (including retransmission consents);

·

the development and deployment of new products and technologies, including cloud-based user interface, Spectrum Guide ® ,   and downloadable security for set top boxes ;

·

failure to protect the security of personal information about the customers of our operating subsidiary and equity affiliate, subjecting us to costly government enforcement actions or private litigation and reputational damage;

·

changes in, or failure or inability to comply with, government regulations, including, without limitation, regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (“ FCC ”) , and adverse outcomes from regulatory proceedings;

·

the effects of governmental regulation on our business or potential business combination transactions;

·

any events that disrupt Charter’s networks, information systems or properties and impair its operating activities and negatively impact its reputation;

·

the ability of suppliers and vendors to deliver products, equipment, software and services;

·

the outcome of any pending or threatened litigation;

·

availability of qualified personnel;

·

changes in the nature of key strategic relationships with partners, vendors and joint venturers;

·

the availability and access, in general, of funds to meet debt obligations prior to or when they become due and to fund operations and necessary capital expenditures, either through (i) cash on hand, (ii) free cash flow, or (iii) access to the capital or credit markets;

·

the ability of Charter and our company to comply with all covenants in our respective debt instruments, any violation of which, if not cured in a timely manner, could trigger a default of other obligations under cross - default provisions;

·

our ability to successfully monetize certain of our assets; and

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·

our ability to successfully deploy the use of proceeds from the rights offering, including the availability of investment opportunities (to the extent such funds are not deployed to acquire shares of New Charter stock) .

Risks Related to the Timer Warner Cable Transaction an d the Bright House Transaction

·

the ability of Charter to complete the Time Warner Cable Transaction (as defined in “Item 1. - Business”) and Bright House Transaction ((as defined in “Item 1. - Business”, and together with the Time Warner Cable Transaction, the “Transactions”) and our ability to complete the acquisition of New Charter stock in connection therewith;

·

New Charter’s ability to achieve the synergies and value creation contemplated by the Transactions;

·

New Charter’s ability to promptly, efficiently and effectively integrate acquired operations into its own operations;

·

managing a significantly larger company than before the completion of the Transactions;

·

diversion of management time on issues related to the Transactions;

·

changes in Charter’s, Time Warner Cable’s or Bright House’s businesses, future cash requirements, capital requirements, results of operations, revenues, financial condition and/or cash flows;

·

disruption in the existing business relationships of Charter, Time Warner Cable and Bright House as a result of the Transactions;

·

the increase in indebtedness as a result of the Transactions, which will increase interest expense and may decrease Charter’s operating flexibility;

·

changes in transaction costs, the amount of fees paid to financial advisors, potential termination fees and the potential payments to Time Warner Cable’s and Bright House's executive officers in connection with the Transactions;

·

operating costs and business disruption that may be greater than expected; and

·

the ability to retain and hire key personnel and maintain relationships with providers or other business partners pending completion of the Transactions.

These forward-looking statements and such risks, uncertainties and other factors speak only as of the date of this Annual Report, and we expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to disseminate any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement contained herein, to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto, or any other change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.  When considering such forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the factors described in Item 1A, "Risk Factors" and other cautionary statements contained in this Annual Report.  Such risk factors and statements describe circumstances which could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.

This Annual Report includes information concerning public companies in which we have controlling and non-controlling interests that file reports and other information with the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 , as amended (the “Exchange Act”) .  Information in this Annual Report concerning those companies has been derived from the reports and other information filed by them with the SEC.  If you would like further information about these companies, the reports and other information they file with the SEC can be accessed on the Internet website maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov.  Those reports and other information are not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report.

(b) Financial Information About Operating Segments

Through our ownership of interests in subsidiaries and other companies, we are primarily engaged in the cable and mobile location technology industries.  Each of these businesses is separately managed.

We identify our reportable segments as (A) those consolidated subsidiaries that represent 10% or more of our annual consolidated revenue, Adjusted OIBDA or total assets and (B) those equity method affiliates whose share of earnings represent

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10% or more of our annual pre-tax earnings.  Financial information related to our operating segments can be found in note 15 to our consolidated financial statements found in Part II of this report.

(c) Narrative Description of Business

Charter Communications, Inc.

Introduction

Charter is among the largest providers of cable services in the United States, offering a variety of entertainment, information and communications solutions to residential and commercial customers. Charter s infrastructure consists of a hybrid of fiber and coaxial cable plant with approximately 12. 8  million estimated passings, wi th 98 % at 550 MHz or greater,  9 9 % of plant miles two - way active and 99% of plant all-digital . A national Internet Protocol   IP infrastructure interconnects Charter s markets. Charter was organized as a Delaware corporation in 1999.

As of December 31 , 2015 , Charter served approximately 6.7  million residential and small and medium business customers. Charter sells its video, Internet and voice services primarily on a subscription basis, often in a bundle of two or more services, providing savings and convenience to its cu stomers. As of December 31, 2015 bundled services are available to approximately 98% of Charter s passings, and approximately 61 % of Charter s customers subscribe to a bundle of services.

Charter served approx imately 4. 3   million residential video customers as of December 31, 2015 .   Charter completed its all-digital rollout in 2014 and substantially all of its markets now offer over 200 HD channels and faster Internet speeds. Charter launched its Charter Spectrum® brand in its all-digital markets.  Digital video enables Charter s customers to access advanced video se rvices such as high definition ( HD” ) television, video on demand programming, an interactive program guide and digital video recorder DVR” service.

Charter also served approximately 5.2  million residential Internet customers as of December 31 , 2015 . Its Internet service is available in a variety of download speeds up to 100 megabits per second ( Mbps” ) ,   and up to 120 Mbps in certain markets, and upload speeds of up to 5 Mbps. As of December 31 , 201 5 ,   approximately   89 % of Charter s Internet customers have at least 6 0 Mbps download speed.

Charter provided voice service to approximately 2.6  million residential customers as of December 31 , 2015 . Its voice services typically include unlimited local and long distance calling to the U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico, plus other features, including voicemail, call waiting and caller ID.

Through Spectrum Business ® ,   Charter provides scalable, tailored broadband communications solutions to business and carrier organizations, such as video entertainment services, Internet access, business telephone services, data networking and fiber connectivity to cellular towers and office buildings. As of December 31 , 2015 , Charter served approximately 671 ,000   small and medium business primary service units (“PSUs”) and 30,000 enterprise PSUs . Charter s advertising sales division, Spectrum Reach ® , provides local, regional and national businesses with the opportunity to advertise in individual markets on cable television networks.

For the year ended December 31, 201 5 , Charter generated approximately $9.8  billion in revenue, of which approximately 83% was generated from Charter s residential video, Internet and voice services. Charter also generated revenue from providing video, Internet, voice and fiber connectivity services to commercial businesses and from the sale of advertising. Sales from res idential Internet and triple play customers (customers receiving all three service offerings, video, internet and voice) and from commercial services have contributed to the majority of Charter s recent revenue growth.

Charter has a history of net losses. Charter s net losses are principally attributable to insufficient revenue to cover the combination of operating expenses, interest expenses that Charter incurs on its debt, depreciation expenses resulting from the capita l investments Charter has made, and continues to make, in its cable properties, amortization expenses related to its customer relationship intangibles and non - cash taxes resulting from increases i n its deferred tax liabilities.

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Time Warner Cable Merger

On May 23, 2015, Charter entered into an Agreement and Plan of Mergers (the “Merger Agreement”) with Time Warner Cable Inc. ("TWC"), CCH I, LLC (“New Charter”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Charter; Nina Corporation I, Inc., Nina Company II, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of New Charter; and Nina Company III, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of New Charter, pursuant to which the parties will engage in a series of transactions that will result in Charter and TWC becoming wholly owned subsidiaries of New Charter (the “ Time Warner Cable Merger ”), on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement.  After giving effect to the Time Warner Cable Merger , New Charter will be the new public company parent that will hold the operations of the combined companies.  Upon consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger , each outstanding share of TWC common stock (other than TWC stock held by Liberty Broadband and Liberty Interactive Corporation ( “Liberty Interactive” and together with Liberty Broadband, the "Liberty Parties")), will be converted into the right to receive $100 in cash and shares of New Charter Class A common stock ("New Charter common stock") equivalent to 0.5409 shares of Charter Class A common stock. Each stockholder of TWC will also have the option to elect to receive for each outstanding share of TWC common stock (other than TWC stock held by the Liberty Parties) $115 in cash and shares of New Charter common stock equivalent to 0.4562 shares of Charter common stock.   Upon consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger , each share of TWC common stock held by the Liberty Parties will be converted into New Charter common stock.  The total enterprise value of TWC based on the estimated value of purchase price consideration is approximately $79 billion, including cash, equity and TWC debt to be assumed. The value of the consideration will fluctuate based on the number of shares outstanding and the market value of Charter's Class A common stock on the acquisition date, among other factors.  In certain circumstances a termination fee may be payable by either Charter or TWC upon termination of the Time Warner Cable Merger as more fully described in the Merger Agreement.

Bright House Transaction

On March 31, 2015, Charter entered into a definitive Contribution Agreement (the “Contribution Agreement”), which was amended on May 23, 2015 in connection with the execution of the Merger Agreement, with Advance/Newhouse Partnership (“A/N”), A/NPC Holdings LLC, New Charter and Charter Communications Holdings, LLC (“Charter Holdings”), our wholly owned subsidiary, pursuant to which Charter would become the owner of the membership interests in Bright House Networks, LLC (“Bright House”) and any other assets (other than certain excluded assets and liabilities and non-operating cash) primarily related to Bright House (the “Bright House Transaction”). At closing, Charter Holdings will pay to A/N approximately $2 billion in cash and issue to A/N convertible preferred units of Charter Holdings with a face amount of $2.5 billion which will pay a 6% coupon, and approximately 34.3 million common units of Charter Holdings that are exchangeable into New Charter common stock on a one-for-one basis with a value of approximately $6 billion.

Liberty Broadband Transaction s and Debt Financing for the Time Warner Cable Merger and Bright House Transaction

Assuming that all TWC stockholders (excluding the Liberty Parties) elect the $100 per share cash option, the cash portion of the consideration for the Time Warner Cable Merger is expected to be approximately $28 billion and the cash portion of the Bright House Transaction is approximately $2 billion. In connection with the Time Warner Cable Merger , Charter and Liberty Broadband entered into an investment agreement, pursuant to which Liberty Broadband agreed to invest $4.3 billion in New Charter at the closing of the Time Warner Cable Merger to partially finance the cash portion of the Time Warner Cable Merger consideration. In connection with the Bright House Transaction, Liberty Broadband agreed to purchase at the closing of the Bright House Transaction $700 million of New Charter Class A common stock (or, if the TWC Transaction is not consummated prior to the completion of the Bright House Transaction, Charter Class A common stock).

In connection with the Time Warner Cable Merger, Liberty Broadband has also entered into an agreement with Charter pursuant to which it has agreed to vote all of its shares of Charter’s Class A common stock in favor of the Time Warner Cable Merger, the issuance of the Charter Shares and any related proposals. Liberty Broadband and Liberty Interactive have also entered into an agreement with Charter which provides that Liberty Broadband and Liberty Interactive will exchange, in a tax-free transaction, the shares of Time Warner Cable common stock held by each company for shares of New Charter Class A common stock (subject to certain limitations). In addition, Liberty Interactive has also agreed to grant Liberty Broadband a proxy over the shares of New Charter it receives in the exchange, along with a right of first refusal with respect to the underlying New Charter shares.

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In connection with the Bright House Transaction, Liberty Broadband agreed to purchase at the closing of the Bright House Transaction $700 million of New Charter Class A common stock (or, if the Time Warner Cable Merger is not consummated prior to the completion of the Bright House Transaction, Charter Class A common stock). Liberty Broadband intends to fund its commitment to purchase up to $700 million in shares of New Charter at a per share price of $173.00 (as adjusted) in connection with the Bright House acquisition through cash on hand or other financing. As previously announced, A/N and Liberty Broadband will enter into a proxy agreement, pursuant to which A/N will grant Liberty Broadband a five-year proxy to vote shares of New Charter held by A/N, capped at 7% of New Charter’s outstanding shares. Liberty Broadband is expected to control approximately 25.01% of the aggregate voting power of New Charter following the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House Transaction and is expected to be New Charter’s largest stockholder.

Charter expects to finance the remaining cash portion of the purchase price of the Time Warner Cable Merger and Bright House Transaction with additional indebtedness and cash on the companies’ balance sheets.  In 2015, Charter issued $15.5 billion CCO Safari II, LLC ("CCO Safari II") senior secured notes, $3.8 billion CCO Safari III, LLC ("CCO Safari III") senior secured bank loans and $2.5 billion CCOH Safari, LLC ("CCOH Safari") senior unsecured notes.  Charter has remaining commitments of approximately $2.7 billion from banks to provide incremental senior secured term loan facilities and senior unsecured notes, as well as an incremental $1.7 billion revolving facility. In addition, the bank commitments provide for a $4.3 billion bridge facility if all TWC stockholders (other than the Liberty Parties) elect the $115 per share cash option, in the event Charter is unable to issue senior unsecured notes in advance of the closing of the Time Warner Cable Merger .

Transaction-Related Commitments

Charter has agreed to certain commitments that will be effective upon the consummation of the TWC Transaction and Bright House Transaction, including commitments in connection with the approval of the TWC Transaction and Bright House Transaction by the State of New York and commitments made to certain leading civil rights/leadership organizations. The commitments to the State of New York include commitments regarding low-income broadband offerings, maintaining existing TWC low price service offerings for a period of time after closing, building out Charter’s networks to currently unserved areas in New Charter’s footprint, enhancing broadband speeds, maintaining certain New York customer facing jobs, and investing in and enhancing customer service. The commitments to the civil rights/leadership organizations include building upon existing diversity efforts in the area of corporate governance, commitments related to employment and workforce recruitment, procurement, programming, and philanthropy and community investment, appointing one African American, one Asian American/Pacific Islander and one Latino American to Charter’s Board of Directors within two years of the close of the transaction, appointing a Chief Diversity Officer, hiring at least 10,000 new employees from the diverse communities in which New Charter will operate, working with minority-serving organizations to significantly increase spending with minority-owned business enterprises and identifying opportunities to work with minority-owned professional business, and various commitments to expand carriage and extend programming agreements on African American, Asian American and Latino programming. Charter may enter into additional commitments in connection with the Time Warner Cable Merger and Bright House Transaction.

Stockholder Approval

The Time Warner Cable Merger was approved by stockholders of both Charter and Time Warner Cable during September 2015 and is subject to regulatory approval and other customary conditions to closing. The Bright House Transaction is subject to several conditions, including the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger (subject to certain exceptions if Time Warner Cable enters into another sale transaction) and regulatory approval.

Regulatory Approval Process

Charter has made all of the necessary filings of applications for the Time Warner Cable Merger   and the Bright House Transaction.  The FCC comment cycle closed mid-November, and Charter is working closely with the FCC and the Department of Justice to make sure they have all the information they need to evaluate the merits of the transactions.  The FCC’s informal 180-day clock for approval will run to March 25, 2016 although the FCC could stop and restart the clock later if they determined to do so. Charter has received approval or authorization from all necessary state authorities except California, Hawaii and New Jersey with California currently having a schedule indicating an order being issued in June 2016.  Charter has filed a motion in California seeking to expedite the timing of the California proceeding although Charter cannot predict the outcome of its efforts to seek an earlier decision. Charter has obtained approvals exceeding the threshold closing condition for franchise authorities approving the transactions.   Charter has raised or received commitments for all of th e acquisition financing, and Charter will be

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operationally ready to close upon obtaining regulatory approvals.     Charter expect s the closing to occur in the second quarter of 2016 subject to regulatory approval and other closing conditions.

Comcast Transactions

On April 25, 2014, Charter entered into a binding definitive agreement (the “Comcast Transactions Agreement”) with Comcast Corporation (“Comcast”), which contemplated the following transactions: (1) an asset purchase, (2) an asset exchange and (3) a contribution and spin-off transaction (collectively, the “Comcast Transactions”).  Pursuant to the terms of the Comcast Transactions Agreement, Comcast had the right to terminate the Comcast Transactions Agreement upon termination of the merger agreement among Comcast, TWC and Tango Acquisition Sub, Inc. (the “Comcast Merger Agreement”).  On April 24, 2015, Comcast and TWC terminated the Comcast Merger Agreement, and Comcast delivered a notice of termination of the Comcast Transactions Agreement to Charter (the “Termination Notice”).  As a result of the termination, proceeds from the issuance of $3.5 billion aggregate principal amount of CCOH Safari notes and $3.5 billion aggregate principal amount of CCO Safari, LLC ("CCO Safari") Term G Loans ("Term G Loans"), which were held in escrow and intended to fund the closing of the Comcast Transactions, were utilized to settle the related debt obligation in April 2015.

Products and Services

Through its hybrid fiber and coaxial cable network, Charter offers its customers traditional cable video services, as well as advanced video services (such as video on demand , HD television, and DVR service), Internet services and voice services. Charter s voice services are primarily provided using voice over Internet Protocol   (“ VoIP ”) technology, to transmit digital voice signals over its systems. Charter s video, Internet, and voice services are offered to residential and commercial customers on a subscription basis, with prices and related charges based on the types of service selected, whether the services are sold as a bundle or on an individual basis, and the equipment necessary to receive the services.

Video Services

In 201 5 , residential video services represented approximately 47 % of Charter s total revenue . Charter s video service offerings include the following:

·

Video.     Substantially a ll of Charter s video customers receive a package of basic programming which generally consists of local broadcast television, local community programming, including governmental and public access, and limited satellite - delivered or non - broadcast channels, such as weather, shop ping and religious programming, along with a digital set - top box that provides an interactive electronic programming guide with p arental controls,   access to pay - per - view channels, including video on demand (available nearly everywhere), digital quality music channels and the option to also receive a cable card . Customers have the option to purchase additional tiers of services including premium channels which provide original programming, commercial - free movies, sports, and other special e vent entertainment programming.

·

Video OnDemand, Subscription OnDemand and Pay-Per-View.  In most areas, Charte r offers video on demand service which allows customers to select from 10,000 or more titles at any time. Video on demand includes standard definition, HD and three dimensional ( “3D” ) content. Video on demand programming options may be accessed for free if the content is associated with the customer’s linear subscription, or for a fee on a transactional basis. Video on demand services may also be offered on a subscription basis included in a digital tier premium channel subscription or for a monthly fee. Pay-per-view channels allow customers to pay on a per-event basis to view a single showing of a recently released movie, a one-time special sporting event, music concert, or similar event on a commercial-free basis.

·

High Definition Television.  HD television offers Charter’s digital customers nearly all video programming at a higher resolution to improve picture and audio quality versus standard basic or digital video images. Charter ’s all-digital tran smission of channels allow s it to offer more than 200 HD channels in substantially all of its markets. Charter is also rolling out HD auto-tune in its markets which i s a feature that ensures HD set- tops tune to the HD version of a channel even when the standard definition version is selected.  

·

Digital Video Recorder.  DVR service enables customers to digitally record programming and to pause and rewind live programming. Charter customers may lease multiple DVR set-top boxes to maximize recording capacity on

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multiple televisions in the home. Most Charter customers also have the ability to program their DVR’s remotely via the Spectrum TV App or its website.

·

Spectrum TV App on Mobile Devices The Spectrum TV App enables Charter video customers to search and discover content on a variety of customer owned devices, including the iPhone®, iPad®, and iPod Touch®, as well as the most popular Android™ based tablets. The Spectrum TV App a llows customers to watch over 15 0 channels of cable TV and use the device as a remote to control their digital set-top box while in their home. It also allows customers the ability to browse Charter’s program guide, search for programming, and schedule DVR recordings from inside and outside the home. Charter’s online offerings include many of its largest and most popular networks. Customers now have the ability to view OnDemand programming within the Spectrum TV App and can download programming directly to their device to view anytime, anywhere, even without an Internet connection. Charter also currently offers content already available online through Charter.net and via programmer authenticated applications and websites such as HBO Go® and WatchESPN®.

·

Spectrum TV App on Immobile Devices .  Charter launched the Spectrum TV App on Roku devices in 2015.  This application enables all Charter video customers with a Roku device to watch live linear programming via the Spectrum TV App.

·

Spectrum Guide®.  In certain markets, Charter has launched Spectrum Guide®, a network or “cloud” based user interface with a similar look and feel of the Spectrum TV App.  Spectrum Guide® is designed to enable Charter’s customers to enjoy a common user interface with a state-of-the-art video experience on all of its existing and future set-top boxes.  Spectrum Guide® was initially introduced in 2014 and Charter plans to continue to deploy and enhance this technology in 2016.

Internet Services

In 201 5 , residential Internet services represented approximately 31 % of Charter’s total revenue . Approximately 96 % of Charter’s estimated passings have available DOCSIS 3.0 wideband technology, allowing Charter to offer its residential customers multiple tiers of Internet services with download speeds of up to 100 Mbps , and up to 120 Mbps in certain markets . Since going all-digital, Charter’s base Internet download speed offering is 60 Mbps, and 100 Mbps in certain markets. Charter’s Internet portal, Charter.net ,   provides multiple e - mail addresses .   Finally, Charter Security Suite is included with Charter ’s Internet services and , upon installation by customers, provides protection from computer viruses and spyware and provides parental control features.

Accelerated growth in the number of IP devices and bandwidth used in homes has created a need for faster speeds and greater reliability.  Charter is focused on providing services to fill those needs.  Charter offers an in-home WiFi product permitting customers to lease a high performing wireless router to maximize their wireless Internet experience. In 2015, in anticipation of new geographies and offered commitments in the Time Warner Cable Merger and Bright House Transaction, Charter launched an out-of-home WiFi service (“Spectrum WiFi”) in four market areas permitting Internet customers to access the Internet at designated "hot spots" within a particular market.  This service is available at no charge to Charter’s Internet customers.

Voice Services

In 2015 , residential voice services represented approximately 6%   of Charter s total revenue . Charter provides voice c ommunications services using VoIP technology to transmit digital voice signals over its network. Ch arter ’s v oice service includes unlimited local and long distance calling to the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico , voicemail, call waiting, caller ID, call forwarding and other features and offers international calling either by the minute or through packages of minutes per month. For Charter v oice and video customers, caller ID on TV is also available in most areas .

Commercial Services

In 2015 , commercial services represented approximately 12 % of Charter s total revenue . Commercial services offered through Spectrum Business include scalable broadband communications solutions for businesses and carrier organizations of all sizes such as Internet access, data networking, fiber connectivity to cellular towers and office buildings, video entertainment services and business telephone services.

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·

Small and Medium Business.  Charter offers basic coax service primarily to small (1 - 19 employees) and medium (20-199) employees businesses similar to its residential offerings .   Spectrum Business includes a full range of video programming tiers and music services, coax Internet speeds of up to 100 Mbps downstream , 200 Mbps in certain markets, and up to 7 Mbps ups tream in its DOCSIS 3.0 markets. Spectrum Business also includes a set of business cloud services including web hosting, e-mail and security, and multi-line telephone services with more than 30 business features including web-based service management.

·

Enterprise Solutions.     Charter offers fiber or complex services to medium and large (200+ employees) businesses including fiber Internet with symmetrical speeds of up to 10 Gbps and voice trunking services such as Primary Rate Interface (“PRI”) and Session Initiation Protocol (“SIP”) Trunks which provide higher-capacity voice services.   Charter also offers Metro Ethernet service that connects two or more locations for commercial customers with geographically dispersed locations with services up to 10 Gbps.  Metro Ethernet service can also extend the reach of the customer's local area network (“LAN”) within and between metropolitan areas.  In addition to the above, Charter offers large businesses with multiple sites more specialized solutions such as custom fiber networks and Metro and long haul Ethernet.  Charter also offers high-capacity last-mile data connectivity services to wireless and wireline carriers, Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) and other competitive carriers on a wholesale basis.

Advertising Services

In 2015 , sales of advertising represented approximately 3 % of Charter s total revenue .   Charter’s advertising sales division, Spectrum Reach®, provides local, regional and national business with the opportunity to advertise in individual markets on cable television networks. Charter receives revenue from the sale of local advertising on digital advertising networks and satellite - delivered networks such as MTV ® , CNN ® and ESPN ® . In any particular market, Charter generally in serts local advertising on over 50 channels. In most cases, the available advertising time is sold by Charter s sa les force, however in some markets , Charter enters into representation agreements with contiguous cable system operators under which another operator in the area will sell advertising on its behalf for a percentage of the revenue. In some markets, Charter sells advertising on behalf of other operators.

Charter has deployed Enhanced TV Binary Interchange Format ( EBIF” ) technology to set - top boxes in most service areas within the Charter footprint. EBIF is a technology foundation that will allow Charter to deliver enhanced and interactive television applications for advertising . From time to time, certain of Charter’s vendors, including programmers and equipment vendors, have purchased advertising from Charter.

Pricing of Charter s Products and Services

Charter s revenue is derived principally from the monthly fees customers pay for the services it provides. Charter typically charges a one - time installation fee which is sometimes waived or discounted during certain promotional periods. The prices Charter charges for its products and services vary based on the level of service the customer chooses and in some cases the geographic market. In accordance with FCC rules, the prices Charter charges for video cable - related equipment, such as set - top boxes and remote control devices, and for installation services, are based on actual costs plus a permitted rate of return in regulated markets.

Charter ’s prici ng and packaging approach emphasizes the triple play products of video, Internet and voice services and combines Charter s most popular and competitive services in core packages at what Charter believes is a fair price.

Charter’s Network Technology and Customer Premise Equipment

Charter s network includes three components: the national backbone, regional/metro networks and the last - mile network. Both Charter s national backbone and regional/metro network components utilize or plan to utilize a redundant IP ring/mesh architecture. The national backbone provides connectivity from the regional demarcation points to nationally centralized content, connectivity and services. The regional/metro network components provide connectivity between the regional demarcation points and headends within a specific geographic area and enable the delivery of content and services between these network components.

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Charter s last -mile network utilizes a hybrid fiber coaxial cable ( HFC” ) architecture, which combines the use of fiber optic cable with coaxial cable. In most systems, Charter delivers its signals via fiber optic cable from the headend to a group of nodes, and uses coaxial cable to deliver the signal from individual nodes to the homes served by that node. For Charter s fiber Internet, Ethernet, carrier wholesale, SIP and PRI commercial customers, fiber optic cable is extended from the individual nodes all the way to the customer s site. Charter ’s design standard is six strands of fiber to each node, with two strands activated and four strands reserved for spares and future services. This design standard allows these strands to be utilized for additional residential traffic capacity, and enterprise customer needs as they arise. Charter believes that this hybrid network design provides high capacity and signal quality. The design also provides two - way signal capabilities for the support of interactive services.

HFC architecture benefits include:

·

bandwidth capacity to enable traditional and two - way video and broadband services;

·

dedicated bandwidth for two -way services ; and

·

signal quality and high service reliability.

Approximately 98 % of Charter s estimated passings are served by systems that have bandwidth of 550 megahertz or greater and 99 % are two - way activated as of December 31, 201 5 . This bandwidth capacity enables Charter to offer digital television, Internet services, voice services and other advanced video services.

In 201 4 , Charter completed its transition from analog to digital transmission of the channels it distributes which allows Charter to recapture bandwidth. The all - digital platform enables Charter to offer a larger selection of HD channels, faster Internet speeds and better picture quality while providing greater plant securi ty and lower transaction costs.

For set-top boxes, Charter is implementing a video conditional access strategy utilizing its downloadable security on a set-top box specified by Charter which can be manufactured by many different manufacturers. As Charter rolls out downloadable security, it will utilize the Worldbox, and Charter is introducing Spectrum Guide ®   in parallel to all box types with cable card and downloadable security .   Worldbox, by utilizing downloadable security along with the introduction of Spectrum Guide ® , has reduced Charter’s incremental set-top box costs and allows for a consistent service for all of its customers and on all of their televisions with a service that is rich in HD, has modern search and discovery features and is capable of improved implementation of future enhancements.

Management, Customer Care and Marketing

Charter s operations are centralized with its corporate office responsible for coordinating and overseeing operations including establishing company-wide strategies, policies and procedures. Sales and marketing, network operations, field operations, customer care, engineering, advertising sales, human resources, legal, government relations, information technology and finance are all directed at the corporate level. Regional and local field operations are responsible for servicing customers and maintenance and construction of outside plants.

Charter continues to focus on improving the customer experience through enhanced product offerings, reliability of services, and quality of customer care .   Charter has in-house domestic call centers that handle over 85% of its calls.  The centers are managed centrally to ensure a consistent and satisfying customer experience. Charter also provides customers with the opportunity to interact with us through a variety of forums in addition to traditional telephonic communications, including on-line and chat.   Charter utilizes its web portals to enable customers to order and upgrade services, manage their accounts, and leverage tools for self-care. Charter’s services include a new and improved Internet portal, Charter.net, making it easier for customers to manage their account, seek self-help and watch TV online.

Charter s marketing strategy emphasizes its bundled services through targeted direct response marketing programs to existing and potential customers and increases awareness and value of the Charter brand. In 2014, Charter rolled out Charter Spectrum®, Charter’s new, national brand platform. Charter Spectrum® represents Charter’s combined video, Internet and voice offering for residential customers. This new brand reflects Charter’s comprehensive approach to industry-leading products, driven by speed, performance and innovation. Charter’s marketing organization creates and executes marketing programs intended to increase customers, retain existing customers and cross-sell additional products to current customers.  Charter monitors the

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effectiveness of its marketing efforts, customer perception, competition, pricing, and service preferences, among other factors, to increase our responsiveness to its customers.  Charter’s marketing organization also manages and directs several sales channels including direct sales, on-line, outbound telemarketing and Charter stores.

Programming

General

Charter believes that offering a wide variety of programming influences a customer s decision to subscribe to and retain its cable services. Charter relies on its experience in programming cable systems, which includes market research, customer demographics and local programming preferences to determine channel offerings in each of its markets. Charter obtains basic and premium programming from a number of suppliers, usually pursuant to written contracts. Charter s programming contracts generally continue for a fixed period of time, usually from three to eight years, and are subject to negotiated renewal. Some programming suppliers offer financial incentives to support the launch of a channel and/or ongoing marketing support. Charter also negotiates volume discount pricing structures. Charter has more recently negotiated for additional content rights, allowing it to provide programming on - line to its authenticated customers.

Costs

Programming is usually made available to Charter for a license fee, which is generally paid based on the number of customers to whom Charter makes such programming available. Programming costs are usually payable each month based on calculations performed by it and are generally subject to annual cost escalations and may be subject to audits by the programmers. Programming license fees may include volume discounts available for higher numbers of customers, as well as discounts for channel placement or service penetration. Some channels are available without cost to Charter for a limited period of time, after which Charter pays for the programming. For home shopping channels, Charter receives a percentage of the revenue attributable to its customers purchases, as well as, in some instances, in centives for channel placement. Charter also offers pay per view channels of movies and events that are subject to revenue split with the content provider.

Charter s programming costs have increased in every year it has operated in excess of customary inflationary and cost - of - living type increases. Charter expects them to continue to increase due to a variety of factors including amounts paid for retransmission consent, annual increases imposed by programmers with additional selling power as a result of media consolidation and carriage of incremental programming, including new sports services and on-line linear services and video on demand programming . In particular, programming costs are increasing as a result of significant sports programming co st increases over the past several years and   the demands of large media companies who link carriage of their most popular networks to carriage and cost increases for all of their networks. In addition, contracts to purchase sports programming sometimes provide for optional additional games to be added to the service and made available on a surcharge basis during the term of the contract. Programmers continue to create new networks and migrate popular programming, such as sporting events to those networks.  Spreading popular programming across more networks often results in Charter having to pay more for a suite of networks offered by any one programmer.  Finally, programmers have experienced declines in demand for advertising as advertisers shift more of their marketing spend online.  Charter believes this results in programmers demanding higher programming fees from them as programmers seek to recover revenue they ar e losing to online advertising.

Federal law allows commercial television broadcast stations to make an election between must - carry rights and an alternative retransmission - consent regime. When a station opts for the retransmission - consent regime, Charter is not allowed to carry the station s signal without the station s permission. Continuing demands by owners of broadcast stations for cash payments at substantial increases over amounts paid in prior years in exchange for retransmission consent will increase Charter s programming costs or require it to cease carriage of popular programming, potentially leading to a loss of customers in affected markets.

Over the past several years, increases in Charter s video service rates have not fully offset increasing programming costs, and with the impact of increasing competition and other marketplace factors, Charter does not expect them to do so in the foreseeable future. Although Charter passes along a portion of amounts paid for retransmission consent to the majority of its customers, its inability to fully pass these programming cost increases on to its video customers has had and is expected in the future to have an adverse impact on Charter s cash flow and operating margins associated with the video product. In order to

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mitigate reductions of Charter s operating margins due to rapidly increasing programming costs, Charter continues to review its pricing and programming packaging strategies, and plans to continue to migrate certain program services from its more highly penetrated levels of service to its less highly penetrated tiers as contracts permit , remove underperforming services and limit the launch of non - essential, new n etworks.

Charter has programming contracts that have expired and others that will expire at or before the end of 201 6 . Charter will seek to renegotiate the terms of these agreements. There can be no assurance that these agreements will be renewed on favorable or comparable terms. To the extent that Charter is unable to reach agreement with certain programmers on terms that it believes are reasonable, Charter has been, and may in the future be, forced to remove such programming channels from its line - up, which may result in a loss of customers.

Franchises

As of December 31, 201 5 , Charter s systems operated pursuant to a total of approximately 3,300  franchises, permits, and similar authorizations issued by local and state governmental authorities. Such governmental authorities often must approve a transfer to another party. Most franchises are subject to termination proceedings in the event of a material breach. In addition, most franchises require Charter to pay the granting authority up to 5.0% of revenue as defined in the various agreements, which is the maximum amount that may be charged under the applicable federal law. Charter is entitled to and generally does pass this fee through to the customer.

Prior to the scheduled expiration of most franchises, Charter generally initiates renewal proceedings with the granting authorities. This process usually takes three years but can take a longer period of time. The Communications Act of 1934, as amended (the Communications Act” ), which is the primary federal statute regulating interstate communications, provides for an orderly franchise renewal process in which granting authorities may not unreasonably withhold renewals. In connection with the franchise renewal process, many governmental authorities require the cable operator to make certain commitments, such as building out certain of the franchise areas, customer service requirements, and supporting and carrying public access channels. Historically Charter has been able to renew its franchises without incurring significant costs, although any particular franchise may not be renewed on commercially favorable terms or otherwise. If Charter fails to obtain renewals of franchises representing a significant number of its customers, it could have a material adverse effect on Charter s consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or its liquidity, including Charter s ability to comply with its debt covenants.

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Markets

Charter operates in geographically diverse areas which are organized in regional clusters. These market s are managed centrally on a consolidated level. Charter s   11 market s areas and the customer relationships within each market as of December 31, 201 5 are as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

    

Total

 

 

 

Customer

 

Key Market Area

 

Relationships

 

California

 

705

 

Carolinas/Virginia

 

1,010

 

Central States

 

696

 

Michigan

 

696

 

Minnesota/Nebraska

 

375

 

Mountain States

 

409

 

New England

 

384

 

Northwest

 

583

 

Tennessee/Louisiana

 

956

 

Texas

 

228

 

Wisconsin

 

632

 

Ownership Interests

We own an approximate 26% ownership interest in Charter. Under the stockholders agreement with Liberty assigned to Liberty Broadb and in the Broadband Spin-Off ( the Charter Stockholders Agreement ”) , we have the right to nominate four directors to the Charter board of directors, subject to certain exclusions and requirements. We also have the right to cause one of our nominees to serve on the nominating and corporate governance, audit and compensation and benefits committees of the board, provided they meet the independence and other qualifications for membership on those committees. In connection with the Bright House Transaction, on May 23, 2015, we entered into an Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement with Charter, New Charter and A/N (the “Second Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement”), which continues to provide us with board nomination rights.

TruePosition, Inc.

TruePosition was incorporated on November 24, 1992. TruePosition develops and markets technology for locating wireless phones and other wireless devices on a cellular network, enabling wireless carriers to provide public safety E - 9 - 1 - 1 services domestically and to enhance services in support of commercial applications, national security and law enforcement worldwide. E - 9 - 1 - 1   refers to a series of FCC mandate s requiring wireless carriers to implement and continuously improve the ability to locate callers requesting emergency services .   Prior to 2015, TruePosition s location offering was a passive network overlay system u sing its patented U - TDOA technology.   In 2015, TruePosition ceased making further investment in its U-TDOA based product offering and commenced the development and marketing of TrueFix, a location offering which is an extension of Skyhook’s WiFi location technology (discussed below) that determines the location of a wireless device by matching received WiFi signals to the known locations of WiFi access points contained in a proprietary reference database. TruePosition s location system calculates the latitude and longitude of a designated wireless telephone or transmitter and forwards the information in real time to application software. Future enhancements, including reverse geo-coding and integration with a National Emergency Address Database , may lead to refining the device location information to include a specific street address.

TruePosition earns revenue from the sale of hardware and licensing of software required to generate location records for wireless phones and other wireless devices on a cellular network and from the design, installation, testing and commissioning of such hardware and software. In addition, TruePosition earns software maintenance revenue through the provision of ongoing technical and software support. Since 2012, TruePosition has been largely dependent on one wireless carrier, which accounted for approximately 80% - 90% of TruePosition’s overall revenue through December 31, 2015 . During September 2015, this customer gave notice that it planned to discontinue use of TruePosition’s existing U-TDOA based technology and did not intend to renew its contract, which expired on December 31, 2015. The loss of this customer will have a material adverse effect on TruePosition’s business until the TrueFix business can be established .

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TruePosition s location system s compete against a number of suppliers of both WiFi based technology solutions and other satellite and terrestrial based location technology offerings. In addition, there are a number of new location technologies in development which may further increase competition to be a location solution for new air interfaces and to meet more stringent accuracy st andards.

On February 14, 2014, TruePosition completed the acquisition of Skyhook.  Skyhook operates a global location network with more than 1 b illion geo located WiFi access points, providing hybrid wireless positioning technology and contextual location intelligence solutions worldwide.  The large amount of data collected by Skyhook powers all of its pr oducts and provid es Skyhook the ability to offer location and geo-informed context to any mobile app or device.  Skyhook's location-based context solutions provide a way for companies and agencies to understand consumers' mobile behavior and improve mobile customer experience, while also allowing advertisers to reach their audiences in new and relevant ways.   Skyhook earns revenue from device manufacturers and application providers by enabling devices and applications to access and utilize location information from Skyhook s location system.   One of Skyhook ’s significant customers did not renew its contract for 2015. As a result, Skyhook's revenue growth during 2015 was lower than anticipated .  

Regulatory Matters

Charter

The following summary addresses the key regulatory and legislative developments affecting the cable industry and Charter s three primary services for both residential and commercial customers: video service, Internet service, and voice service. Cable system operations are extensively regulated by the federal government (primarily the FCC), certain state governments, and many local governments. A failure to comply with these regulations could subject Charter to substantial penalties. Charter s business can be dramatically impacted by changes to the existing regulatory framework, whether triggered by legislative, administrative, or judicial rulings. Congress and the FCC have frequently revisited the subject of communications regulation and are likely to do so again in the future.

Video Service

Must Carry/Retransmission Consent

There are two alternative legal methods for carriage of local broadcast television stations on cable systems. Federal must carry regulations require cable systems to carry local broadcast television stations upon the request of the local broadcaster. Alternatively, federal law includes retransmission consent regulations, by which popular commercial television stations can prohibit cable carriage unless the cable operator first negotiates for retransmission consent, which may be conditioned on significant payments or other concessions. Congress passed legislation in 2014 imposing certain restrictions on broadcasters’ exercise of retransmission consent authority and directing the FCC to review aspects of its existing retransmission consent rules.  That FCC review is on-going. Popular stations invoking retransmission consent have been demanding substantial compensation increases in their recent negotiations with cable operators, thereby significantly increasing Charter s operating costs.

Cable Equipment

In 1996, Congress enacted a statute requiring the FCC to adopt regulations designed to assure the development of an independent retail market for “navigation devices,” such as cable set-top boxes. As a result, the FCC required cable operators to make a separate offering of security modules (i.e., a “CableCARD”) that can be used with retail navigation devices. Some of the FCC’s rules requiring support for CableCARDs were vacated by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (“D.C. Circuit”) in 2013.  The FCC had also adopted an “integration ban,” which had required cable operators to use CableCARDs in all of their new set-top boxes.  In 2013, Charter received a two-year waiver from the FCC’s “integration ban,” on the condition that Charter meet certain milestones regarding downloadable security by the end of the waiver period.  In December 2014, as part of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act Reauthorization Act of 2014 (“STELAR”), Congress repealed the integration ban, effective December 4, 2015.  STELAR also directed the FCC to establish a “working group of technical experts” to identify and report on downloadable security design options that are not unduly burdensome and that promote competition with respect to the availability of navigation devices.  That group issued its report in August 2015, and comments on the report

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were subsequently filed at the FCC.  The expert report identified alternative proposals, but no consensus recommendation, for FCC action.  On January 27, 2016, the FCC Chairman announced that he had circulated a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to the other FCC commissioners for vote on February 18, 2016 and outlined his proposal regarding navigation devices.  If adopted, the Chairman’s proposal would require Charter to allow navigation devices on its network if the navigation devices meet standards to be developed by a third party standard setting body envisioned by the proposed rules regardless of the manufacturer of the device.  It remains uncertain what rules, if any, will ultimately be adopted and what operating or financial impact any such rules might have on Charter, including on the security of the content Charter obtains from programmers that is delivered over any third party navigation device, customer privacy and the user experience.

Privacy and Information Security Regulation

The Communications Act limits Charter s ability to collect and disclose subscribers personally identifiable information for its video, voice, and Internet services and imposes requirements to safeguard such information. Charter is subject to additional federal, state, and local laws and regulations that impose additional restrictions on the collection, use and disclosure of consumer, subscriber and employee information. Further, the FCC, the Federal Trade Commission “ FTC” , and many states regulate and restrict the marketing practices of cable operators, including telemarketing and online marketing efforts. Various federal agencies, including the FTC, are now considering new restrictions affecting the use of personal and profiling data for online advertising. Charter s operations are also subject to federal and state laws governing information security.   In the event of an information security breach, such rules may require consumer and government agency notification and may result in regulatory enforcement actions with the potential of mone tary forfeitures.  The FCC has used the existing authority under its privacy and security requirements for telecommunications services to bring enforcement actions against several companies (including one cable operator) for failing to protect customer data from unauthorized access by and disclosure to third parties, with settlements resulting in substantial monetary penalties .  Similarly, the FTC and state attorneys general regularly bring enforcement actions against companies related to information security breaches and privacy violations.  Congress and several state legislatures are considering the adoption of new data security and cybersecurity legislation that could result in additional network and information security requirements for Char ter’s business.

In 2014, the National Institute for Standards and Technologies (“NIST”), in cooperation with other federal agencies and owners and operators of U.S. critical infrastructure, released a voluntary framework that provides a prioritized and flexible model for organizations to identify and manage cyber risks inherent to their business.  The NIST cybersecurity framework was directed by an Executive Order and a Presidential Policy Directive issued in 2013, and it is designed to supplement, not supersede, existing cybersecurity regulations and requirements.  Several government agencies have encouraged compliance with the NIST cybersecurity framework, including the FCC, which is also considering expansion of its cybersecurity guidelines or the adoption of cybersecurity requirements. 

MDUs / Inside Wiring

The FCC has adopted a series of regulations designed to spur competition with established cable operators in multi-dwelling unit (“ MDU ”) complexes. These regulations allow Charter s competitors to access certain existing cable wiring inside MDUs. The FCC also adopted regulations limit ing the ability of established cable operators, like Charter, to enter into exclusive service contracts for MDU complexes.

Pole Attachments

The Communications Act requires most utilities owning utility poles to provide cable systems with ac cess to poles and conduits and subjects the rates charged for this access to either federal or state regulation. In 2011 and again in 2015, the FCC amended its pole attachment rules to promote broadband deployment.  The 2011 order allows for new penalties in certain cases involving unauthorized attachments, but generally strengthens the cable industry's ability to access investor-owned utility poles on reasonable rates, terms, and conditions.  Additionally, the 2011 order reduces the federal rate formula previously applicable to “telecommunications” attachments to closely approximate the rate formula applicable to “cabl e” attachments.  The 2015 order continues the reconciliation of rates , effectively closing the remaining “loophole” that potentially allowed for significantly higher rates for telecommunications than for “cable” attachments in certain scenarios. Neither the 2011 order nor the 2015 order directly affect the rate in states that self-regulate (rather than allow the FCC to regulate pole rates), but many of those states have substantially the same rate for cable and telecommunications attachments.

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Although the 2011 and 2015 orders do not impact the status quo treatment of cable-provided VoIP service as an unclassified service eligible for the favorable cable rate, the issue has not been fully resolved by the FCC, and a potential change in classification in a pending proceeding could adversely impact Charter’s pole attachment rates in states or for periods of time in which the cable rate is or was lower than the telecommunications rate.  Additionally,  although the FCC’s 2015 reclassification of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service also set forth the FCC’s intention that pole rates not increase as result, that reclassification ruling could adversely impact Charter’s pole attachment rates in states or for periods of time in which the cable rate is or was lower than the telecommunica tions rate.

Cable Rate Regulation

Federal law strictly limits the potential scope of cable rate regulation.  Pursuant to federal law, all video offerings are universally exempt from rate regulation, except for a cable system’s minimum level of video programming service, referred to as “basic service,” and associated equipment.  Rate regulation of basic service and associated equipment operates pursuant to a federal formula, with local governments, commonly referred to as local franchising authorities, primarily responsible for administering this regulation.  The majority of Charter’s local franchising authorities have never certified to regulate basic service cable rates.  In 2015, the FCC adopted an order (which is now under appeal) reversing its historic approach to rate regulation certifications and requiring a local franchise authority interested in regulating cable rates to first make an affirmative showing that there is no “effective competition” (as defined under federal law)  in the community.  Very few local franchise authorities have filed the necessary rate regulation certification, and the FCC’s 2015 order should make it more difficult for such entities to assert rate regulation in the future.

There have been calls to impose expanded rate regulation on the cable industry. Confronted with rapidly incr e asing cable programming costs, it is possible that Congress may adopt new constraints on the retail pricing or packaging of cable programming. Any such constraints could adversely affect Charter s operations.

Access Channels

Local franchise agreements often require cable operators to set aside certain channels for public, educational, and governmental access programming. Federal law also requires cable systems to designate up to 15% of their channel capacity for commercial leased access by unaffiliated third parties, who may offer programming that Charter s customers do not particularly desire. The FCC adopted revised rules in 2007 mandating a significant reduction in the rates that operators can charge commercial leased access users   and imposing additional administrative requirements that would be burdensome on the cable industry . The effect of the FCC s   revised rules was stayed by a federal court, pending a cable industry appeal and an adverse finding by the Office of Management and Budget. Although commercial leased access activity historically has been relatively limited, increased activity in this area could further burden the channel capacity of Charter s cable systems.

Other FCC Regulatory Matters

FCC regulations cover a variety of additional areas, including, among other things: (1) equal employment opportunity obligations; (2) customer service standards; (3) technical service standards; (4) mandatory blackouts of certain network and syndicated programming; (5) restrictions on political advertising; (6) restrictions on advertising in children's programming; (7) licensing of systems and facilities; (8) maintenance of public files; (9) emergency alert systems; and (1 0) disability access, including requirements governing video-description and closed-captioning.  Each of these regulations restricts Charter’s business practices to varying degrees and may impose additional costs on Charter’s operations.

Copyright

Cable systems are subject to a federal copyright compulsory license covering carriage of television and radio broadcast signals. The possible modification or elimination of this compulsory copyright license is the subject of continuing legislative proposals and administrative review and could adversely affect Charter s ability to obtain desired broadcast programming.

Copyright clearances for non - broadcast programming services are arranged through private negotiations. Cable operators also must obtain music rights for locally originated programming and advertising from the major music performing rights organizations.

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Franchise Matters

Cable systems generally are operated pursuant to nonexclusive franchises granted by a municipality or other state or local government entity in order to utilize and cross public rights - of - way. Cable franchises generally are granted for fixed terms and in many cases include monetary penalties for noncompliance and may be terminable if the franchisee fails to comply with material provisions. The specific terms and conditions of cable franchises vary significantly between jurisdictions. Cable franchises generally contain provisions governing cable operations, franchise fees, system construction, maintenance, technical performance, customer service standards, and changes in the ownership of the franchisee. A number of states subject cable systems to the jurisdiction of centralized state government agencies, such as public utility commissions. Although local franchising authorities have considerable discretion in establishing franchise terms, certain federal protections benefit cable operators. For example, federal law caps local franchise fees and includes renewal procedures designed to protect incumbent franchisees from arbitrary denials of renewal. Even if a franchise is renewed, however, the local franchising authority may seek to impose new and more onerous requir ements as a condition of renewal.   Similarly, if a local franchising authority's consent is required for the purchase or sale of a cable system, the local franchising authority may attempt to impose more burdensome requirements as a condition for providing its consent.

The traditional cable franchising regime has undergone significant change as a result of various federal and state actions. The FCC has adopted rules that streamline entry for new competitors (particularly those affiliated with telephone companies) and reduce certain franchising burdens for these new entrants. The FCC adopted more modest relief for existing cable operators.

At the same time, a substantial number of states have adopted new franchising laws.  Again, these laws were principally designed to streamline entry for new competitors, and they often provide advantages for these new entrants that are not immediately available to existing cable operators.  In many instances, these franchising regimes do not apply to established cable operators until the existing franchise expires or a competitor directly en ters the franchise territory. 

Internet Service

On February 26, 2015, the FCC adopted an order that: (1) reclassified broadband Internet service as a Title II service, (2) applied certain existing Title II provisions and associated regulations (including requiring that rates and practices be just, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory, allowing complaints in court and before the FCC, imposing privacy and disability obligations, and providing broadband providers with access to poles and conduits), (3) forbore from applying a range of other existing Title II provisions and associated regulations, but to varying degrees indicated that this forbearance may be only temporary, and (4) issued new rules expanding disclosure requirements and prohibiting blocking, throttling, paid prioritization, and unreasonable interference with the ability of end users and edge providers to reach each other. The order also subjected broadband providers’ Internet traffic exchange rates and practices to potential FCC oversight and created a mechanism for third parties to file complaints regarding these matters. The order has been challenged by multiple parties in the D.C. Circuit , but the rules are currently in effect. The D.C. Circuit is expected to rule on the challenge in 2016. The FCC is also considering the appropriate regulatory framework for VoIP service, including whether that service should be regulated under Title II. Charter has made certain commitments to comply with the FCC’s order in connection with the FCC’s review of Charter’s pending TWC Transactio n and Bright House Transaction.

As the Internet has matured, it has become subject to increasing regulatory interest. Congress and federal regulators have adopted a wide range of measures directly or potentially affecting Internet use, including, for example, consumer privacy, copyright protections, defamation liability, taxation, obscenity, and unsolicited commercial e - mail. Charter s Internet services are subject to the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (“ CALEA ”) requirements regarding law enforcement surveillance. These funding requirements could impose significant new costs on Charter’s high-speed Internet service.  Also, the FCC and some state regulatory commissions direct certain subsidies to telephone companies deploying broadband to areas deemed to be “unserved” or “underserved.”  Charter has opposed such subsidies when directed to areas that Charter serves.  State and local governmental organizations have also adopted Internet-related regulations.  These various governmental jurisdictions are also considering additional regulations in these and other areas, such as privacy, pricing, service and product quality, and taxation. 

The FCC is considering whether online video distributors ( “OVDs” ) that offer programming to customers with a broadband Internet connection should be classified as multichannel video programming distributors ( “MVPDs” ) , and thereby

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obtaining the benefit of the program access protections available to MVPDs, as well as becoming subject to some of the regulatory requirements applicable to MVPDs.  The outcome of this proceeding, which could impact how OVDs compete in the future with traditional cable service, cannot be determined at the current time.

On January 29, 2015, the FCC, in a nation-wide proceeding evaluating whether “advanced broadband” is being deployed in a reasonable and timely fashion, increased the minimum connection speeds required to qualify as advanced broadband service to 25 Mbps for downloads and 3 Mbps for uploads.  As a result, the FCC concluded that advanced broadband was not being sufficiently deployed and initiated a new inquiry into what steps it might take to encourage broadband deployment. The FCC’s 2016 Broadband Progress Report adopted on January 28, 2016 concluded that advanced broadband is not being deployed to all Americans in a reasonable and timely fashion. The FCC therefore may adopt additional measures affecting our broadband business.  At the same time, the FCC has ongoing proceedings to allocate additional spectrum for advanced wireless service, which could provide additional wireless competition to Charter’s broadband business.

On February 26, 2015, the FCC adopted a memorandum opinion and order (Order) granting two petitions from municipalities in North Carolina and Tennessee, respectively, and preempted the challenged state laws that restrict the ability of municipalities to construct and deploy broadband systems in competition with private offerings. Although the   O rder only preempt s the North Carolina and Tennessee laws at issue, municipalities in other states may seek similar relief.  The Order   has been appealed , and Congress might also adopt legislation expressly limiting the FCC’s authority in this area. If the Order is upheld, it could lead to increased competition from municipal-provided broadband.

Voice Service

The Telecommunications Act of 1996 created a more favorable regulatory environment for Charter to provide telecommunications and/or competitive voice services than had previously existed. In particular, it established requirements ensuring that competitive telephone companies could interconnect their networks with those providers of traditional telecommunications services to open the market to competition. The FCC has subsequently ruled that competitive telephone companies that support VoIP services, such as those Charter offers to its customers, are entitled to interconnection with incumbent providers of traditional telecommunications services, which ensures that Charter s VoIP services can compete in the market. Since that time, the FCC has initiated a proceeding to determine whether such interconnection rights should extend to traditional and competitive networks utilizing IP technology, and how to encourage the transition to IP networks throughout the industry. New rules or obligations arising from these proceedings may affect Charter s ability to compete in the provision of voice services. In 2011, the FCC released an order, which was affirmed by the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals in 2014, significantly changing the rules governing intercarrie r compensation payments for the termination of telephone traffic between carriers. That change result ed in a substantial decrease in the intercarrier compensation payments Charter receives, and those payments will continue to decrease over the multi - year transition period, which will , however, affect not only the amounts that Charter receives from other carriers but also the amounts that Charter pays to other carriers . The schedule and magnitude of these decreases, however, will vary depending on the nature of the carriers and the telephone traffic at issue, and any further rule changes .

Further regulatory changes are being considered that could impact Charter s voice business and that of its primary telecommunications competitors. The FCC and state regulatory authorities are considering, for example, whether certain common carrier regulations traditionally applied to incumbent local exchange carriers should be modified or reduced, and the extent to which common carrier requirements should be extended to VoIP providers. The FCC has already determined that certain providers of voice services using IP technology must comply with requirements relating to 911 emergency services   (“ E - 9 - 1 - 1 ”) , the CALEA (the statute   governing law enforcement access to and surveillance of communications ) , Universal Service Fund contributions, customer privacy and Customer Proprietary Network Information issues, number portability, network outage reporting, rural call completion, disability access, regulatory fees, and discontinuance of service .   In November 2014, the FCC adopted an order imposing limited back-up power obligations on providers of facilities-based fixed, residential voice services that are not otherwise line-powered, including our VoIP services.  This order becomes effective in February 2016 and requires Charter to disclose certain information to customers and to make back-up power available at the point of sale.  In March 2007, a federal appeals court affirmed the FCC s decision concerning federal regulation of certain VoIP services, but declined to specifically find that VoIP service provided by cable companies , such as Charter provides, should be regulated only at the federal level. As a result, some states have begun proceedings to subject cable VoIP services to state level regulation ,   and at least one state has asserted jurisdiction over our VoIP services.  Charter has filed a legal challenge to that state’s assertion of jurisdiction, which is now pending before a federal district court in Minnesota. Although Charter has registered with, or obtained certificates or authorizations from, the FCC and the state regulatory authorities in those states in which it offers competitive voice services in

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order to ensure the continuity of its services and to maintain needed network interconnection arrangements, it is unclear whether and how these and other ongoing regulatory matters ultimately will be resolved.

TruePosition

TruePosition s wireless phone and device location technology enables wireless carriers, governments and other enterprises to provide E - 9 - 1 - 1 services domestically and to enhance services in support of commercial applications, national security and law enforcement worldwide. The FCC s wireless E - 9 - 1 - 1 rules apply to all wireless licensees, broadband personal communications services licensees, and certain specialized mobile radio licensees. Such carriers must provide a 911 call center, called a local public safety answering point ( PSAP”) under FCC rules, with the telephone number of the originator of a wireless 9 - 1 - 1 call and the location of the cell site or base station transmitting the call. In addition, upon a valid request by a PSAP, such carriers must provide more precise information to the PSAP, such as the latitu de and longitude of the caller.

The E-9-1-1 location accuracy requirements originally adopted by the FCC in 1996 applied only to 911 calls originating outdoors.  Recognizing the increased use of wireless phones indoors, o n January 29, 2015, the FCC adopted indoor location accuracy rules in its Fourth Report and Order in its E-9-1-1 location accuracy proceeding to assist first responders .  Under the new rules, all wireless providers generally must provide horizontal location information with 50 meter accuracy for 40 percent of all wireless 911 calls within two years of the effective date of the Fourth Report and Order ( April 30, 2015 ), and for 80 percent of all wireless calls, within six years of the effective date.  Wireless providers also must meet specific requirements for the provision of vertical location information for wireless 911 calls within three-to-eight years of the effective date.  Smaller wireless providers may have additional time to comply with certain of the horizontal and vertical benchmarks.

Various U.S and foreign regulatory requirements apply, or may apply in the future, to the global positioning technologies and services offered by Skyhook. Skyhook s use of personal information must comply with all applicable consumer and data protection laws in the United States and abroad. Legislatures and regulatory agencies in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere continue to implement additional consumer and data protection requirements.

Competition

Charter

Charter faces competition for both residential and commercial customers in the areas of price, service offerings, and service reliability. In its residential business, Charter competes with other providers of video, high - speed Internet access, voice services, and other sources of home entertainment. In its commercial business, Charter competes with other providers of video, high- speed Internet access and related value - added services, fiber solutions, business telephony, and Ethernet services. Charter operates in a competitive business environment, which can adversely affect the results of its business and operations. Charter cannot predict the impact on it of broadband servi ces offered by its competitors.

In terms of competition for customers, Charter views itself as a member of the broadband communications industry, which encompasses multi - channel video for television and related broadband services, such as high - speed Internet, voice, and other interactive video services. In the broadband communications industry, Charter s principal competitors for video services are direct broadcast satellite (“ DBS ”) and telephone companies that offer video services. Charter s principal competitors for high - speed Internet services are the broadband services provided by telephone companies, including both traditional DSL, fiber - to - the - node, and fiber - to - the - home offerings. Charter s principal competitors for voice services are established telephone companies, other telephone service providers, and other carriers, including VoIP providers. At this time, Charter does not consider other traditional cable operators to be significant competitors in its overall market, as overbuilds are infrequent and geographically spotty (although in any particular market, a cable operator overbuilder would likely be a significant competitor at the local level). Charter could, however, face additional competition from other cable operators if they began distributing video over the Internet to customers residing outside their current territories.

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Charter’s key competitors include:

DBS

Direct broadcast satellite is a significant competitor to cable systems. The two largest DBS providers now serve more than 3 3  million subscribers nationwide. DBS service allows the subscriber to receive video services directly via satellite using a dish antenna.

Video compression technology and high powered satellites allow DBS providers to offer more than 315 digital channels. In 201 5 , major DBS competitors were especially competitive with promotional pricing for more basic services. While Charter continues to believe that the initial investment by a DBS customer exceeds that of a cable customer, the initial equipment cost for DBS has decreased substantially, as the DBS providers have aggressively marketed offers to new customers of incentives for discounted or free equipment, installation, and multiple units. DBS providers are able to offer service nationwide and are able to establish a national image and branding with standardized offerings, which together with their ability to avoid franch ise fees of up to 5% of revenue and property tax, leads to greater efficiencies and lower costs in the lower tiers of service. Charter believes that cable-delivered v ideo on demand and s ubscription video on demand services, which include HD programming, are superior to DBS service, because cable headends can provide communication to deliver many titles which customers can access and control independently, whereas DBS technology can only make available a much smaller number of titles with DVR-like customer control. DBS providers have also made attempts at deployment of Internet access services via satellite, but those services have been technically constrained and of limited appeal.

Telephone Companies and Utilities

Incumbent telephone companies, including AT&T , Inc. (“AT&T”) and Verizon Communications Inc. (“Verizon”) , offer video and other services in competition with Charter, and Charter expects they will increasingly do so in the future. These companies are able to offer and provide two-way video, data services and digital voice services that are similar to Charter’s in various portions of their networks. In the case of Verizon, its high-speed data services (fiber optic service (“FiOS”)) offer speeds as high as or higher than Charter’s. In addition, these companies continue to offer their traditional telephone services, as well as service bundles that include wireless voice services provided by affiliated companies. Based on internal estimates, Charter believes that AT&T (excluding DirecTV) and Verizon are offering video services in areas serving approximately 3 5 % and 4%, respectively, of its estimated passings and Charter has experienced customer losses in these areas. AT&T and Verizon have also launched campaigns to capture more of the multiple dwelling unit   (“ MDU ”) market. When AT&T or Verizon have introduced or expanded their offering of video products in Charter’s market areas, Charter has seen a decrease in its video revenue as AT&T and Verizon typically roll out aggressive marketing and discounting campaigns to launch their products.   Moreover , in July 2015, AT&T completed its acquisition of DirectTV, the nation’s largest DBS provider.  This transaction create d an even larger competitor for Charter’s video services that has the ability to expand its video service offering s to include bundled wireless offerings.

In addition to incumbent telephone companies obtaining video franchises or alternative video authorizations, they have been successful through various means in reducing or streamlining the video franchising requirements applicable to them. They have had success at the federal and state level in securing FCC rulings and statewide video franchise laws that facilitate telephone company entry into the video marketplace. Because telephone companies have been successful in avoiding or reducing franchise and other regulatory requirements that remain applicable to cable operators like Charter, their competitive posture has been enhanced in some areas . The large scale entry of incumbent telephone companies as direct competitors in the video marketplace has adversely affected the profitability and valuation of Charter’s cable systems.

Most telephone companies, including AT&T and Verizon, which already have plant, an existing customer base, and other operational functions in place (such as billing and service personnel), offer Internet access via traditional DSL service. DSL service allows Internet access to subscribers at data transmission speeds greater than those formerly available over conventional telephone lines. Charter believes DSL service is an alternative to its high-speed Internet service and is often offered at prices lower than its Internet services, although typically at speeds lower than the speeds Charter offers. DSL providers may currently be in a better position to offer voice and data services to businesses since their networks tend to be more extensive in commercial areas. Charter expects DSL to remain a significant competitor to its high-speed Internet services.

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Many large incumbent telephone companies also provide fiber-to-the-node or fiber-to-the-home services in select areas of their footprints. Fiber-to-the-node networks can provide faster Internet speeds than conventional DSL, but still cannot typically match Charter’s Internet speeds. Charter’s primary fiber-to-t he-node competitor is AT&T’s U- verse. The competition from AT&T U-verse is expected to intensify over time as AT&T completed an expansion in 2015 based on plan s an nounced in late 2012 and entered into additional expansion commitments in connection with its acquisition of DirecTV in 2015 . Fiber-to- the-home networks, however, can provide Internet speeds equal to or greater than Charter’s current Internet speeds. Veriz on’s FiOS is the primary fiber- to-the-home competitor , although AT&T has also begun fiber-to-the-home builds as well .

Charter’s voice service competes directly with the voice services of incumbent telephone companies and other carriers, including Internet-based VoIP providers, for both residential and commercial voice service customers. Because Charter offers voice services, it is subject to considerable competition from such companies and other telecommunications providers, including wireless providers with an increasing number of consumers choosing wireless over wired telephone services. The telecommunications and voice services industry is highly competitive and includes competitors with greater financial and personnel resources, strong brand name recognition, and long-standing relationships with regulatory authorities and customers. Moreover, mergers, joint ventures and alliances among Charter’s competitors have resulted in providers capable of offering video cable television, Internet, and voice services in direct competition with Charter.

Additionally, Charter is subject to limited competition from utilities and/or municipal utilities (collectively, Utilities ) that possess fiber optic transmission lines capable of transmitting signals with minimal signal distortion.

Traditional Overbuilds

Cable systems are operated under non - exclusive franchises historically granted by state and local authorities. More than one cable system may legally be built in the same area. Franchising authorities may grant a second franchise to another cable operator that may contain terms and conditions more favorable than those afforded to Charter. Well - financed businesses from outside the cable industry, such as public utilities that already possess fiber optic and other transmission lines in the areas they serve, have in some cases become competitors. There are a number of cities that have constructed their own cable systems, in a manner similar to city - provided utility services. There also has been interest in traditional cable overbuilds by private companies not affiliated with established local exchange carriers , including Google Fiber . Constructing a competing cable system is a capital intensive process which involves a high degree of risk. Charter believes that in order to be successful, a competitor s overbuild would need to be able to serve the homes and businesses in the overbuilt area with equal or better service quality, on a more cost - effective basis than Charter can. Any such overbuild operation would require access to capital or access to facilities already in place that are capable of delivering cable television programming. Charter cannot predict the extent to which additional overbuild situations may occur.

Broadcast Television

Cable television has long competed with broadcast television, which consists of television signals that the viewer is able to receive without charge using an off - air antenna. The extent of such competition is dependent upon the quality and quantity of broadcast signals available through off - air reception, compared to the services provided by the local cable system. Traditionally, cable television has provided higher picture quality and more channel offerings than broadcast television. However, the recent licensing of digital spectrum by the FCC now provides traditional broadcasters with the ability to deliver HD television pictures and multiple digital - quality program streams, as well as advanced digital services such as subscription video and data transmission.

Internet Delivered Video

Internet access facilitates the streaming of video, including movies and television shows, into homes and businesses. Online video services include those offered by Hulu, Netflix, Amazon and Apple. Increasingly, content owners are using Internet - based delivery of content directly to consumers, some without charging a fee to access the content. Further, due to consumer electronic innovations, consumers are able to watch such Internet - delivered content on televisions, personal computers, tablets, gaming boxes connected to televisions and mobile devices. In 2015, HBO and CBS began selling their programming direct to consumers over the Internet. DISH Network launched Sling TV which include s ESPN among other programming, and Sony launched Playstation Vue which include s   85+ TV channels.  Charter views online video distributors as complementary and has

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developed a cloud-based guide that can incorporate Internet delivered video. Charter believes some customers have chosen or will choose to receive video over the Internet rather than through its video on demand and subscription video services, thereby reducing Charter s video revenue which may be offset by increases in Charter’s Internet revenue . Charter cannot predict the impact that Internet delivered video will have on its revenue and adjusted EBITDA as technologies continue to evolve.

Private Cable

Additional competition is posed by satellite master antenna television systems, or SMATV systems, serving MDUs, such as condominiums, apartment complexes, and private residential communities. Private cable systems can offer improved reception of local television stations, and many of the same satellite - delivered program services that are offered by cable systems. Although disadvantaged from a programming cost perspective, SMATV systems currently benefit from operating advantages not available to franchised cable systems, including fewer regulatory burdens and no requirement to service low density or economically depressed communities. The FCC previously adopted regulations that favor SMATV and private cable operators serving MDU complexes, allowing them to continue to secure exclusive contracts with MDU owners. This regulatory disparity provides a competitive advantage to certain of Charter s current and potential competitors.

Other Competitors

Local wireless Internet services operate in some markets using available unlicensed radio spectrum. Various wireless phone companies are now offering third and fourth generation (3G and 4G) wireless high - speed Internet services with fifth generation (5G) and faster services on the horizon . In addition, a growing number of commercial areas, such as retail malls, restaurants and airports, offer Wi - Fi Internet service. Numerous local governments are also considering or actively pursuing publicly subsidized Wi -Fi Internet access networks. Operators are also marketing PC cards and personal hotspots offering wireless broadband access to their cellular networks. These service options offer another alternative to cable - based Internet access.   In addition, certain wireless carriers, including T-Mobile and Verizon, are exempting certain video traffic from data charges thus encouraging video over the Internet.

TruePosition

TruePosition faces competition from a number of suppliers of both WiFi based technology solutions and other wireless location technologies, such as GPS, OTDOA and Terrestrial Beacons, which provide similar location - based product and services to TruePosition. Although TruePosition ’s products are in part comple men tary to GPS, in that UTDOA and WiFi can operate in areas where GPS is not currently available due to lack of connection to satellites, solutions such as OTDOA and Terrestrial Beacons may also operate in environments where GPS signals are blocked. In addition, Skyhook faces competition from Google, HERE and smaller regional or niche market competitors as providers of location - based services , products and contextual information .

Seasonality and Cyclicality

Charter

Charter’s business is subject to seasonal and cyclical variations. Its results are impacted by the seasonal nature of customers receiving its cable services in college and vacation markets. Charter’s revenue is subject to cyclical advertising patterns and changes in viewership levels. Its U.S. advertising revenue is generally higher in the second and fourth calendar quarters of each year, due in part to increases in consumer advertising in the spring and in the period leading up to and including the holiday season. U.S. advertising revenue is also cyclical, benefiting in even-numbered years from advertising related to candidates running for political office and issue-oriented advertising.

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Employees

Liberty Broadband

Liberty Broadband (on a nonconsolidated basis) currently does not have any corporate employees. Liberty provide s   Liberty Broadband with certain transitional services pursuant to a services agreement, and certain of Liberty s corporate emplo yees and executive officers serve as corporate employees and executive officers of Liberty Broadband.

Charter

As of December 31, 201 5 , Charter had approximately 23, 8 00 full-time equivalent employees. As of December 31, 201 5 , approximately 60 Charter employees were represented by collective bargaining agreements. Charter has never experienced a work stoppage.

TruePosition

As of December 31, 201 5 , TruePosition had approximately 1 00   full and part - time employees , including Skyhook employees. None of these employees is represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. Liberty Broadband believes that the se employee relations are good.

(d) Financial Information About Geographic Areas

For financial information related to the geographic areas in which we do business, see note 1 5 to our consolidated financial statements f ound in Part II of this report.

(e) Available Information

All of our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), including our Form 10-Ks, Form 10-Qs and Form 8-Ks, as well as amendments to such filings are available on our Internet website free of charge generally within 24 hours after we file such material with the SEC.  Our website address is www.libertybroadband.com.

Our corporate governance guidelines, code of business conduct and ethics, compensation committee charter, nominating and corporate governance committee charter, and audit committee charter are available on our website.  In addition, we will provide a copy of any of these documents, free of charge, to any shareholder who calls or submits a request in writing to Investor Relations, Liberty Broadband Corporation, 12300 Liberty Boulevard, Englewood, Colorado 80112, Tel. No. (877) 772-1518.

The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference herein.    

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Item 1A. Risk Factor s

The risks described below and elsewhere in this annual report are not the only ones that relate to our businesses or our capitalization.  The risks described below are considered to be the most material.  However, there may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that also could have material adverse effects on our businesses.  Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods.  If any of the events described below were to occur, our businesses, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and/or cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Factors Relating to Our Corporate History and Structure

We are a holding company, and we could be unable to obtain cash in amounts sufficient to service our financial obligations or meet our other commitments.

Our ability to meet our current and future financial obligations, including to make debt service obligations under the Margin Loan Agreements (defined below) , and other contractual commitments depends upon our ability to access cash. We are a holding company, and our sources of cash include our available cash balances, net cash from the operating activities of our wholly - owned subsidiary TruePosition, any dividends and interest we may receive from our investments, available funds under the Margin Loan Agreements (which was none as of December 31, 201 5 ) and proceeds from any asset sales we may undertake in the future. The proceeds from the rights offering , which closed in the first quarter of 2015, is o ur current primary source of cash. In addition, the ability of our only operating subsidiary to pay dividends or to make other payments or advances to us depends on its operating results and any statutory, regulatory or contractual restrictions to which it may be or may become subject.

We do not have access to the cash that Charter generates from its operating activities.

Charter generated approximately $ 2,359 million , $ 2,359  million and $ 2,158  million of cash from its operations during the years ended December 31, 2015, 201 4 and 201 3 , respectively. Charter uses the cash it generates from its operations primarily to fund its business operations and to service its debt and other financial obligations. We do not have access to the cash that Charter generates unless Charter declares a dividend on its capital stock payable in cash, repurchases any or all of its outstanding shares of capital stock for cash (subject to any contractual restrictions on our ability to participate in any such repurchase) or otherwise distributes or makes payments to its stockholders, including us. Historically, Charter has not paid any dividends on its capital stock or, with limited exceptions, otherwise distributed cash to its stockholders and instead has used all of its available cash in the expansion of its business and to service its debt obligations. Covenants in Charter s existing debt instruments also restrict the payment of dividends and cash distributions to stockholders. We expect that Charter will continue to apply its available cash to the expansion of its business.

Our company may have future capital needs and may not be able to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms.

In connection with the Broadband Spin-Off, we have outstanding borrowings of $ 400 million at December 31, 2015 under two margin loan agreements ( the Margin Loan Agreements” )   entered into by our wholly owned subsidiary of Liberty Broadband (“BroadbandSPV”). The obligations under the Margin Loan Agreements are guaranteed solely by our company and are secured by a portion of our ownership interest in Charte r. Such equity interests are held through BroadbandSPV. The terms o f the Margin Loan Agreements limit our company s ability to secure additional financing on favorable terms, and our cash flow from operations may be insufficient to satisfy our financial obligations under indebtedness outstanding from time to time. Our ability to secure additional financing and satisfy our financial obligations will depend upon the operating performance of our subsidiary, TruePosition, the value of our investment in Charter, prevailing general economic and credit market conditions, including interest rate levels and the availability of credit generally, and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. There can be no assurance that sufficient financing will be available on desirable terms or at all. If financing is not available when needed or is not available on favorable terms, we may be unable to take advantage of business or market opportunities as they arise, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

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We have significant indebtedness, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

As discussed above, in connection with the Broadband Spin -Off, we enter ed into the Margin Loan Agreements as the guarantor with BroadbandSPV as the borrower , pur suant to which BroadbandSPV has   outstanding  $ 400  million at December 31, 2015 . As a result of this significant indebtedness, our company may:

·

Experience increased vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;

·

Be required to dedicate a substantial portion of its cash flow from operations to principal and interest payments on its indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions and investments and other general corporate purposes;

·

Be handicapped in its ability to optimally capitalize and manage the cash flow for its businesses; and

·

Be exposed to the risk of increased interest rates with respect to any variable rate portion of its indebtedness.

In addition, it is possible that we may need to incur additional indebtedness in the future. If new debt is added to the current debt levels, the risks described above could intensify. For additional limitations on our company s ability to potentially service our direct debt obligations, see We are a holding company, and we could be unable to obtain cash in amounts sufficient to service our financial obligations or meet our other commitments and We do not have access to the cash that Charter generates from its operating activities above.

The agreements that govern our current and future indebtedness may contain various affirmative and restrictive covenants that will limit our discretion in the operation of our business.

As discussed above, in connection with the Broadband Spin -Off, we enter ed into the Margin Loan Agreements as the guarantor with BroadbandSPV as the borrower , pursuant to which Broadba ndSPV has outstanding  $ 400  million and has   none available to be drawn at December 31, 2015 . The Margin Loan Agreements contain various covenants, including those that limit our ability to, among other things, incur indebtedness by BroadbandSPV, enter into financing arrangements with respect to the portion of stock of Charter pledged to secure the loans under the Margin Loan Agreements, and cause BroadbandSPV to enter into unrelated businesses or otherwise conduct business other than owning common stock of Charter and other assets as permitted under the Margin Loan documents. We may also enter into certain other indebtedness arrangements in the future. The instruments governing such indebtedness, often contain covenants that, among other things, place certain limitations on our ability to incur more debt, exceed specified leverage ratios, pay dividends, make distributions, make investments, repurchase stock, create liens, enter into transactions with affiliates, merge or consolidate, and transfer or sell assets. Any failure to comply with such covenants could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We rely on Charter to provide us with the financial information that we use in accounting for our ownership interest in Charter as well as information regarding Charter that we include in our public filings.

We account for our approximately 26% ownership interest in Charter using the equity method of accounting and, accordingly, in our financial statements we record our share of Charter s net income or loss. Within the meaning of U.S. accounting rules, we rely on Charter to provide us with financial information prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, which we use in the application of the equity method. We also rely on Charter to provide us with the information regarding their company that we include in our public filings. In addition, we cannot change the way in which Charter reports its financial results or require Charter to change its internal controls over financial reporting. No assurance can be given that Charter will provide us with the information necessary to enable us to complete our public filings on a timely basis or at all. Furthermore, any material misstatements or omissions in the information Charter provides to us or publicly files could have a material adverse effect on our financial statements and filing status under federal securities laws.

We may become subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940.

We do not believe we are currently subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940, because our investment in Charter enables us to exercise significant influence over Charter. We have substantial involvement in the management and affairs of Charter, including through our board nominees .   We   nominated four of Charter s ten current directors .   In connection with the proposed Bright House Transaction, on May 23, 2015, we entered into an Amended and Restated

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Stockholders Agreement (the “Second Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement”) with Charter, New Charter and A/N Partnership, which continues to provide us with board nomination rights. If, however, our investment in Charter were deemed to become passive (such as in the event that our equity inter est were significantly diluted and our nominees ceased to serve as directors of Charter), we could become subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940. In such event, we would be required to register as an investment company, which could result in significant registration and compliance costs, could require changes to our corporate governance str ucture and financial reporting and could restrict our activities going forward. Our restated charter includes a provision that would enable us, at the option of our board of directors, to automatically convert each outstanding share of our Series B common stock into one share of our Series A common stock at such time as we have outstanding less than 20% of the total number of shares of our Series B common stock issued in the Broadband Spin - Off. In addition, if we were to become inadvertently subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940, any violation of this act could subject us to material adverse consequences, including potentially significant regulatory penalties and the possibility that our contracts wou ld be deemed unenforceable.

Our company has overlapping directors and officers with Liberty, Liberty Interactive and Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc., which may lead to conflicting interests.

As a result of the Broadband Spin-Off, the September 2011 separation of Starz from Liberty and the January 2013 spin-off of Liberty from Starz, most of the executive officers of Broadband also serve as executive officers of Liberty, Liberty Interactive and Libe rty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. ( TripCo”) and there are overlapping directors. None of these companies has any ownership interest in any of the others. Our executive officers and members of our company s board of directors have fiduciary duties to our stockholders. Likewise, any such persons who serve in similar capacities at Liberty, Liberty Interactive, TripCo or any other public company have fiduciary duties to that company s stockholders. For example, there may be the potential for a conflict of interest when our company, Liberty, Liberty Interactive or TripCo pursues acquisitions and other business opportunities that may be suitable for each of them. Therefore, such persons may have conflicts of interest or the appearance of conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving or affecting more than one of the companies to which they owe fiduciary duties. Our company has renounced its rights to certain business opportunities and our restated certificate of incorporation will provide that no director or officer of our company will breach their fiduciary duty and therefore be liable to our company or its stockholders by reason of the fact that any such individual directs a corporate opportunity to another person or entity (including Liberty, Liberty Interactive and TripCo) instead of our company, or does not refer or communicate information regarding such corporate opportunity to our company, unless (x) such opportunity was expressly offered to such person solely in his or her capacity as a director or officer of our company or as a director or officer of any of our subsidiaries, and (y) such opportunity relates to a line of business in which our company or any of its subsidiaries is then directly engaged. In addition, any potential conflict that qualifies as a related party transaction (as defined in Item 404 of Regulation S - K) is subject to review by an independent committee of the applicable issuer s board of directors in accordance with its corporate governance guidelines. Any other potential conflicts that arise will be addressed on a case - by - case basis, keeping in mind the applicable fiduciary duties owed by the executive officers and directors of each issuer. From time to time, we may enter into transactions with Liberty or Liberty Interactive and/or their respective subsidiaries or other affiliates. There can be no assurance that the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to our company, Liberty, Liberty Interactive or any of their respective subsidiaries or affiliates as would be the case where there is no overlapping officer or director.

Our inter - company agreements were negotiated while we were a subsidiary of Liberty.

We entered into a number of inter - company agreements covering matters such as tax sharing and our responsibility for certain liabilities previously undertaken by Liberty for certain of our business es. In addition, we entered into a services agreement with Liberty pursuant to which it will provide to us certain management, administrative, financial, treasury, accounting, tax, legal and other services, for which we will reimburse them on a fixed fee basis. The terms of all of these agreements were established while we were a wholly - owned subsidiary of Liberty, and hence may not be the result of arms’ length negotiations. We believe that the terms of these inter- company agreements are commercially reasonable and fair to all parties under the circumstances; however, conflicts could arise in the interpretation or any extension or renegotiation of the foregoing agreements after the Broadband Spin-Off.

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Factors Relating to Charter  

The following risks relate specifically to our equity affiliate Charter. If any of these risks were realized, they could have a material adverse effect on the value of our equity interests in Charter, which could negatively impact our stock price and our financial prospects.

Charter has a significant amount of debt and may incur significant additional debt, including secured debt, in the future, which could adversely affect its financial health and ability to react to changes in its business.

Charter has a significant amount of debt and may (subject to applicable restrictions in each of its debt instruments) incur additional debt in the future. As of December 31 , 2015 , Charter s total principal amount of debt was approximately $ 35.9  billion including $ 21.8 billion of debt for which proceeds are held in escrow pending consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House T ransaction .

As a result of this significant indebtedness, Charter may:

·

Be impacted in its ability to raise additional capital at reasonable rates, or at all;

·

Be vulnerable to interest rate increases because approximately 28% of its borrowings are , and may continue to be, subject to variable rates of interest ;

·

Be exposed to increased interest expense to the ext ent it refinances existing debt with higher cost debt;

·

Be required to dedicate a significant portion of its cash flow from operating activities to make payments on its debt, reducing funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, and other general corporate expenses;

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Experience limited flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in Charter s business, the cable and telecommunications industries, and the economy at large;

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Be placed at a disadvantage compared to its competitors that have proportionately less debt; and

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Be adversely affected by Charter s relationship with customers and suppliers.

If current debt amounts increase, the related risks that Charter faces will intensify.

The agreements and instruments governing Charter’s debt contain restrictions and limitations that could significantly affect Charter’s ability to operate its business, as well as significantly affect its liquidity.

Charter s credit facilities and the indentures governing its debt contain a number of significant covenants that could adversely affect Charter s ability to operate its business, liquidity and results of operations. These covenants restrict, among other things, Charter and its subsidiaries ability to:

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incur additional debt;

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repurchase or redeem equity interests and debt;

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issue equity;

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make certain investments or acquisitions;

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pay dividends or make other distributions;

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dispose of assets or merge;

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enter into related party transactions; and

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grant liens and pledge assets.

Additionally, the Charter Communications Operating,  LLC ( Charter Operating”) credit facilities require Charter Operating to comply with a maximum total leverage covenant and a maximum first lien leverage covenant. The breach of any

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covenants or obligations in its indentures or credit facilities, not otherwise waived or amended, could result in a default under the applicable debt obligations and could trigger acceleration of those obligations, which in turn could trigger cross defaults under other agreements governing Charter’s long-term indebtedness. In addition, the secured lenders under the Charter Operating credit facilities , CCO Safari III credit facilities and the holders of the CCO Safari II notes   could foreclose on their collateral, which includes equity interests in Charter s subsidiaries, and exercise other rights of secured creditors.

Charter depends on generating sufficient cash flow to fund its debt obligations, capital expenditures, and ongoing operations.

Charter is dependent on its cash on hand and cash flow from operations to fund its debt obligations, capital expenditures and ongoing operations.

Charter s ability to service its debt and to fund its planned capital expenditures and ongoing operations will depend on its ability to continue to generate cash flow and its access (by dividend or otherwise) to additional liquidity sources at the applicable obligor. Charter s ability to continue to generate cash flow is dependent on many factors, including:

·

its abil ity to sustain and grow revenue and cash flow from operations by offering video, Internet, voice, advertising and other services to residential and commercial customers, to adequately meet the customer experience demands in its markets and to maintain and grow its customer base, particularly in the face of increasingly aggressive competition, the need for innovation and t he related capital expenditures;

·

the impact of competition from other market participants, including but not limited to incumbent telephone companies, direct broadcast satellite operators, wireless broadband and telephone providers, digital subscriber line “ DSL” providers , video provided over the Internet and providers of advertising over the Internet ;

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general business conditions, economic uncertainty or downturn, high unemployment levels and the level of activity in the housing sector;

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Charter s ability to obtain programming at reasonable prices or to raise prices to offset, in whole or in part, the effects of higher programming costs (including retransmission consents);

·

the development and deployment of new products and technologies , including Charter’s cloud-based user interface, Spectrum Guide ® and downloadable security for set-top boxes ;  

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the effects of governmental regulation on its business   or potential bu siness combination transactions; and

·

any events that disrupt Charter’s networks, information systems or properties and impair its operating activities and negatively impact its reputation.

Some of these factors are beyond Charter s control. If it is unable to generate sufficient cash flow or it is unable to access additional liquidity sources, Charter may not be able to service and repay its debt, operate its business, respond to competitive challenges, or fund its other liquidity and capital needs.

Restrictions in Charter’s subsidiaries’ debt instruments and under applicable law limit their ability to provide funds to Charter and its subsidiaries that are debt issuers.

Charter s primary assets are its equity interests in its subsidiaries. Charter s operating subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and are not obligated to make funds available to their debt issuer holding companies for payments on its notes or other obligations in the form of loans, distributions, or otherwise. Charter Operating s ability to make distributions to Charter ,   CCO Holdings (comprised of CCO Holdings, LLC and CCO Holdings Capital Corp.), CCOH Safari, LLC (“CCOH Safari”) , CCO Safari II, LLC (“CCO Safari II”) or CCO Safari III, LLC (“CCO Safari III”) , its other primary debt issuer s , to service debt obligations is subject to its compliance with the terms of its credit facilities, and restrictions under applicable law. Under the Delaware Limited Liability Company Act ( the DLLCA ) , Charter s subsidiaries may only make distributions if the relevant entity has surplus as defined in the DLLCA. Under fraudulent transfer laws, Charter s subsidiaries may not pay dividends if the relevant entity is insolvent or is rendered insolvent thereby. The measures of insolvency for purposes of these fraudulent transfer laws vary depending upon the law applied in any proceeding to determine whether a fraudulent transfer has occurred. Generally, however, an entity would be considered insolvent if:

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the sum of its debts, including contingent liabilities, was greater than the fair saleable value of all its assets;

·

the present fair saleable value of its assets was less than the amount that would be required to pay its probable liability on its existing debts, including contingent liabilities, as they become absolute and mature; or

·

it could not pay its debts as they became due.

While Charter believes that its relevant subsidiaries currently have surplus and are not insolvent, these subsidiaries may become insolvent in the future. Charter s direct or indirect subsidiaries include the borrowers and guarantors under the Charter Operating credit facilities and the entities that will be issuers and guarantors under the CCO Safari II notes upon consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger .   CCOH Safari and CCO Holdi ngs are each an obligor under their respective senior notes and CCO Safari III is an obligor under its credit facilities . As of December 31 , 201 5 , Charter s total principal amount of debt was approximately $ 35.9  billion .

In the event of bankruptcy, liquidation, or dissolution of one or more of its subsidiaries, that subsidiary s assets would first be applied to satisfy its own obligations, and following such payments, such subsidiary may not have sufficient assets remaining to make payments to its parent company as an equity holder or otherwise. In that event , the lenders under Charter Operating's credit facilities, the CCO Safari II notes and any other indebtedness of Charter’s subsidiaries whose interests are (or will be following the consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger) secured by substantially all of Charter’s operating assets, and all holders of other debt of Charter Operating, CCO Safari II, CCO Safari III, CCO Holdings and CCOH Safari will have the right to be paid in full before Charter from any of its subsidiaries' assets.

Some of Charter’s outstanding debt is subject to change of control provisions. It may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to fulfill its obligations under its indebtedness following a change of control, which would place Charter in default under the applicable debt instruments.

Charter may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to fulfill its obligations under its notes and its credit facilities following a change of control. Under the indentures governing the CCO Holdings’ notes and CCOH Safari’s notes, upon the occurrence of specified change of control events, the debt issuer is required to offer to repurcha se all of its outstanding notes. However, Charter may not have sufficient access to funds at the time of the change of control event to make the required repurchase of the applicable notes and Charter Operating is limited in its ability to make distributions or other payments to any debt issuer to fund any required repurchase. In addition, a change of control under the Charter Operating credit facilities would result in a default under those credit facilities , which would trigger a default under the indentures governing the CCO Holdings’ notes and CCO Safari II notes . Because such credit facilities and notes are obligations of Charter Operating and its subsidiaries , the credit facilities would have to be repaid before Charter Operating s assets could be available to CCO Holdings or CCOH Safari to repurchase their notes. Any failure to make or complete a change of control offer would place CCO Holdings or CCOH Safari in default under its notes. The failure of Charter s subsidiaries to make a change of control offer or repay the amounts accelerated under their notes and credit facilities would place them in default.

Charter operates in a very competitive business environment, which affects its ability to attract and retain customers and can adversely affect its business, operations and financial results.

The industry in which Charter operates is highly competitive and has become more so in recent years. In some instances, Charter competes against companies with fewer regulatory burdens, better access to financing, greater personnel resources, greater resources for marketing, greater and more favorable brand name recognition, and long - established relationships with regulatory authorities and customers. Increasing consolidation in the cable industry and the repeal of certain ownership rules have provided additional benefits to certain of its competitors, either through access to financing, resources, or efficiencies of scale. Charter could also face additional competition from multi - channel video providers if they began distributing video over the Internet to customers residing outside their current territories.

Charter s principal competitors for video services throughout its territory are direct broadcast satellite ( DBS” ) providers. The two largest DBS providers are DirecTV (which is owned by AT&T) and DISH Network. Competition from DBS, including inte nsive marketing efforts with aggressive pricing, exclusive programming and increased HD broadcasting has had an adverse impact on Charter’s ability to retain customers. DBS companies have also expanded their activities in the MDU market .

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Telephone companies, including two major telephone companies, AT& T and Verizon, offer video and other services in competition with Charter, and it expects they will increasingly do so in the future. Upgraded portions of these networks carry two-way video, data services and provide digital voice services similar to those provided by Charte r . In the case of Verizon, high-speed data services (fiber optic service “ FiOS” ) offer speeds as high as or higher than Charter’s data services . In addition, these companies continue to offer their traditional telephone services, as well as service bundles that include wireless voice services provided by affiliated companies. Based on its internal estimates, Charter believes that AT&T (excluding DirecTV) and Verizon are offering video services i n areas serving approximately 35 % and 4%, respectively, of its estimated passings and it has experienced customer losses in these areas. When AT&T or Verizon have introduced or expanded their offering of video products in Charter s market areas, Charter has seen a decrease in its video revenue as AT&T and Verizon typically roll out aggressive marketing and discounting campaigns to launch their products. AT&T’s acquisition of DirectTV, the nation’s largest DBS provider, create d an even larger competitor for Charter’s video services that has the ability to expand its video service offering s to include bundled wireless offerings .

Due to consumer electronic innovations, content owners are allowing consumers to watch Internet-delivered content on televisions, personal computers, tablets, gaming boxes connected to televisions and mobile devices, some without charging a fee to access the content.  Technological advancements, such as video-on-demand, new video formats, and Internet streaming and downloading, have increased the number of entertainment and information delivery choices available to consumers, and intensified the challenges posed by audience fragmentation. For example, online video services continue to offer consumers alternatives including Hulu, Netflix, Amazon and Apple.  In 2015 , HBO and CBS began sell ing their programming direct to consumers over the Internet.  DISH Network has also launched Sling TV which include s ESPN among other programming, and Sony launched PlayStation Vue which include s more than 8 5 TV channels.  The increasing number of choices available to audiences could also negatively impact advertisers’ willingness to purchase advertising from Charter, as well as the price they are willing to pay for advertising.

With respect to Charter s Internet access services, Charter faces competition, including intensive marketing efforts and aggressive pricing, from telephone companies, primarily AT&T and Verizon, and other providers of DSL, fiber - to - the - node and fiber - to - the - home services. DSL service competes with its Internet service and is often offered at prices lower than its Internet services, although often at speeds lower than the speeds Charter offers. Fiber - to - the - node networks can provide faster Internet speeds than conventional DSL, but still cannot typically match Charter s Internet speeds. Fiber - to - the - home networks, however, can provide Internet speeds equal to or greater than Charter s current Internet speeds. In addition, in many of its markets, DSL providers have entered into co - marketing arrangements with DBS providers to offer service bundles combining video services provided by a DBS provider with DSL and traditional telephone and wireless services offered by the telephone companies and their affiliates. These service bundles offer customers pricing and convenience advantages similar to Charter s bundles.

Continued growth in the residential voice business faces risks. The competitive landscape for residential and commercial telephone services is intense; Charter faces competition from providers of Internet telephone services, as well as incumbent telephone companies. Further, Charter faces increasing competition for residential voice services as more consumers in the United States are replacing traditional telephone service with wireless service. Charter expects to continue to price its voice product aggressively as part of its triple play strategy which could negatively impact its revenue from voice services to the extent it does not increase volume.

The existence of more than one cable system operating in the same territory is referred to as an overbuild. Overbuilds could adversely affect Charter s growth, financial condition, and results of operations, by creating or increasing competition. Charter is aware of traditional overbuild situations impacting certain of its markets, however, it is unable to predict the extent to which additional overbuild situations may occur.

In order to attract new customers, from time to time Charter makes promotional offers, including offers of temporarily reduced price or free service. These promotional programs result in significant advertising, programming and operating expenses, and also may require it to make capital expenditures to acquire and install customer premise s equipment. Customers who subscribe to Charter s services as a result of these offerings may not remain customers following the end of the promotional period. A failure to retain customers could have a material adverse effect on Charter s business.

Mergers, joint ventures, and alliances among franchised, wireless, or private cable operators, DBS providers, local exchange carriers, and others, may provide additional benefits to some of Charter s competitors, either through access to financing, resources, or efficiencies of scale, or the ability to provide multiple services in direct competition with Charter.

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In addition to the various competitive factors discussed above, Charter s business competes with all other sources of entertainment and information delivery, including broadcast television, movies, live events, radio broadcasts, home video products, console games, print media, and the Internet. If Charter does not respond appropriately to further increases in the leisure and entertainment choices available to consumers, its competitive position could deteriorate, and its financial results could suffer.

Charter s services may not al low them to compete effectively . Competition may reduce its expected growth of future cash flows which may contribute to future impairments of Charter franchises and goodwill   and its ability to meet cash flow requirements, including debt service requirements .

Charter’s exposure to the economic conditions of its current and potential customers, vendors and third parties could adversely affect its cash flow, results of operations and financial condition.

Charter is exposed to risks associated with the economic conditions of its current and potential customers, the potential financia l instability of its customers and their financial ability to purchase Charter’s products. If there were a general economic downturn, Charter may experience increased can cellations by its customers or to unfavorable changes in the mix of products purchased. These events have adversely affected Charter in the past , and may adversely affect Charter s cash flow, results of operations and financial condition if a downt ur n were to occur .

In addition, Charter is susceptible to risks associated with the potential financial instability of the vendors and third parties on which it relies to provide products and services or to which it outsources certain functions. The same economic conditions that may affect Charter s customers, as well as volatility and disruption in the capital and credit markets, also could adversely affect vendors and third parties and lead to significant increases in prices, reduction in output or the bankruptcy of Charter s vendors or third parties upon which it relies. Any interruption in the services provided by its vendors or by third parties could adversely affect Charter s cash flow, results of operation and financial condition.

Charter faces risks inherent in its commercial business.

Charter may encounter unforeseen difficulties as it increases the scale of its service offerings to businesses. Charter sells Internet access, data networking and fiber connectivity to cellular towers and office buildings, video and business voice services to businesses and has increased its focus on growing this business. In order to grow its commercial business, Charter expects to continue to invest in technology, equipment and personnel focused on the commercial business. Commercial business customers often require service level agreements and generally have heightened customer expectations for reliability of services. If Charter s efforts to build the infrastructure to scale the commercial business are not successful, the growth of its commercial services business would be limited. Charter depends on interconnection and related services provided by certain third parties for the growth of its commercial business. As a result, its ability to implement changes as the services grow may be limited. If Charter is unable to meet these service level requirements or expectations, its commercial business could be adversely affected. Finally, Charter expects advances in communications technology, as well as changes in the marketplace and the regulatory and legislative environment. Consequently, Charter is unable to predict the effect that ongoing or future developments in these areas might have on its voice and commercial businesses and operations.

Programming costs are rising at a much faster rate than wages or inflation, and Charter may not have the ability to reduce or moderate the growth rates of, or pass on to its customers, its increasing programming costs, which would adversely affect its cash flow and operating margins.

Programming has been, and is expected to continue to be, Charter s largest operating expense item. In recent years, the cable industry has experienced a rapid escalation in the cost of programming. Charter expects programming costs to continue to increase because of a variety of factors including amounts paid for retransmission consent, annual increases imposed by programmers with additional selling power as a result of media consolidation, additional programming, i ncluding new sports services, out-of-home or non -linear programming and attempts by programmers to replace advertising revenue they are losing to online marketing options and as a result of declining viewership ratings . The inability to fully pass these programming cost increases on to its customers has had an adverse impact on Charter s cash flow and operating margins associated with the video product. Charter has programming contracts that have expired and others that will expire at or before the end of 201 6 . There can be no assurance that these agreements will be renewed on favorable or comparable terms. To the extent that Charter is unable to

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reach agreement with certain programmers on terms that it believes are reasonable, Charter may be forced to remove such programming channels from its line - up, which could result in a further loss of customers.

Increased demands by owners of some broadcast stations for carriage of other services or payments to those broadcasters for retransmission consent are likely to further increase Charter s programming costs. Federal law allows commercial television broadcast stations to make an election between must - carry rights and an alternative retransmission - consent regime. When a station opts for the latter, cable operators are not allowed to carry the station s signal without the station s permission. In some cases, Charter carries stations under short - term arrangements while it attempts to negotiate new long - term retransmission agreements. If negotiations with these programmers prove unsuccessful, they could require Charter to cease carrying their signals, possibly for an indefinite period. Any loss of stations could make its video service less attractive to customers, which could result in less subscription and advertising revenue. In retransmission - consent negotiations, broadcasters often condition consent with respect to one station on carriage of one or more other stations or programming services in which they or their affiliates have an interest. Carriage of these other services, as well as increased fees for retransmission rights, may increase Charter s programming expenses and diminish the amount of capacity it has available to introduce new services, which could have an adverse effect on its business and financial results.

Charter’s inability to respond to technological developments and meet customer demand for new products and services could limit its ability to compete effectively.

Charter s business is characterized by rapid technological change and the introduction of new products and services, some of which are bandwidth - intensive. Charter may not be able to fund the capital expenditures necessary to keep pace with technological developments, execute the plans to do so, or anticipate the demand of its customers for products and services requiring new technology or bandwidth. The implementation of its network - based user interface , Spectrum Guide ® , and downloadable security necessary for Charter’s Worldbox set-top box strategy, may ultimately be unsuccessful or more expensive than anticipated .   In order to realize the benefits of its Worldbox technology, Charter must implement its downloadable conditional access security in its regional video networks. Charter s inability to maintain and expand its upgraded systems and provide advanced services such as a state of the art user interface in a timely manner, or to anticipate the demands of the marketplace, could materially adversely affect its ability to attract and retain customers. Consequently, Charter s growth, financial condition and results of operations could suffer materially.

Charter depends on third party service providers, suppliers and licensors; thus, if it is unable to procure the necessary services, equipment, software or licenses on reasonable terms and on a timely basis, its ability to offer services could be impaired, and Charter’s growth, operations, business, financial results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Charter depends on third party service providers, suppliers and licensors to supply some of the services, hardware, software and operational support necessary to provide some of its services. Charter obtains these materials from a limited number of vendors, some of which do not have a long operating history or which may not be able to continue to supply the equipment and services it desires. Some of Charter s hardware, software and operational support vendors, and service providers represent its sole source of supply or have, either through contract or as a result of intellectual property rights, a position of some exclusivity. If demand exceeds these vendors capacity or if these vendors experience operating or financial difficulties, or are otherwise unable to provide the equipment or services it needs in a timely manner, at its specifications and at reasonable prices, Charter s ability to provide some services might be materially adversely affected, or the need to procure or develop alternative sources of the affected materials or services might delay its ability to serve its customers. These events could materially and adversely affect Charter s ability to retain and attract customers, and have a material negative impact on its operations, business, financial results and financial condition. A limited number of vendors of key technologies can lead to less product innovation and higher costs. Charter s cable systems have historically been restricted to using one of two proprietary conditional access security systems, which it believes has limited the number of manufacturers producing set - top boxes for such systems. As an alternative, Charter has developed a conditional access security system which may be downloaded into set - top boxes with specified features that could be provided by a variety of manufacturers. Charter refers to its specified set top box as its Worldbox. In order to realize the benefits of its Worldbox technology, Charter must implement a conditional access security system across its video network . Charter cannot provide assurances that this implementation will ultimately be successful or completed in the expected timeframe or at the expected budget.

Charter further depends on patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and licenses to establish and maintain its intellectual property rights in technology and the products and services used in its operating activities. Any of its intellectual

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property rights could be challenged or invalidated, or such intellectual property rights may not be sufficient to permit Charter to continue to use certain intellectual property, which could result in discontinuance of certain product or service offerings or other competitive harm, it incurring substantial monetary liability or being enjoined preliminarily or permanently from further use of the intellectual property in question.

Various events could disrupt Charter’s networks, information systems or properties and could impair its operating activities and negatively impact its reputation.

Network and information systems technologies are critical to Charter s operating activities, as well as its customers access to its services. Charter may be subject to information technology system failures and network disruptions. Malicious and abusive activities, such as the dissemination of computer viruses, worms, and other destructive or disruptive software, computer hackings, social engineering, process breakdowns, denial of service attacks and other malicious activities have become more common in industry overall. If directed at Charter or technologies upon which it depends, these activities could have adverse consequences on its network and its customers, including degradation of service, excessive call volume to call centers, and damage to its or its customers equipment and data. Further, these activities could result in security breaches, such as misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or accidental release or loss of information maintained in Charter s information technology systems and networks, and in its vendors systems and networks, including customer, personnel and vendor data. System failures and network disruptions may also be caused by natural disasters, accidents, power disruptions or telecommunications failures. If a significant incident were to occur, it could damage Charter s reputation and credibility, lead to customer dissatisfaction and, ultimately, loss of customers or revenue, in addition to increased costs to service its customers and protect its network. These events also could result in large expenditures to repair or replace the damaged properties, networks or information systems or to protect them from similar events in the future. System redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate, and Charter s disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventual ities. Any significant loss of customers or revenue, or significant increase in costs of serving those customers, could adversely affect Charter s growth, financial condition and results of operations.

For tax purposes, Charter could experience a deemed ownership change in the future that could limit its ability to use its tax loss carryforwards.

As of December 31, 201 5 , Charter had approximately $ 11.3  billion of federal tax net operating loss carryforwards resulting in a gross deferred tax asset of approximately $ 4.0  billion. Federal tax net operating loss carryforwards expire in the years 202 0 through 203 5 . These losses resulted from the operations of Charter Holdco and its subsidiaries. In addition, as of December 31, 201 5 , Charter had state tax net operating loss carryforwards resulting in a gross deferred tax asset (net of federal tax benefit) of approximately $ 3 65  million. State tax net operating loss carryforwards ge nerally expire in the years 201 6 through 203 5 . Due to uncertainties in projected future taxable income, valuation allowances have been established against the gross deferred tax assets for book accounting purposes, except for future taxable income that will result from the reversal of existing temporary differences for which deferred tax liabilities are recognized. Such tax loss carryforwards can accumulate and be used to offset its future taxable income.

In the past, Charter has experienced “ownership changes” as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).  In general, an “ownership change” occurs whenever the percentage of the stock of a corporation owned, directly or indirectly, by “5-percent stockholders” (within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code) increases by more than 50 percentage points over the lowest percentage of the stock of such corporation owned, directly or indirectly, by such “5-percent stockholders” at any time over the preceding three years. As a result, Charter , and following the Time Warner Cable Merger, New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) will be subject to an annual limitation on the use of its loss carryforwards which existed at November 30, 2009 for the first "ownership change" and those that existed at May 1, 2013 for the second "ownership change."  The limitation on Charter’s ability to use its loss carryforwards, in conjunction with the loss carryforward expiration provisions, could reduce its ability to use a portion of its loss carryforwards to offset future taxable income, which could result in Charter being required to make material cash tax payments.  Charter’s ability to make such income tax payments, if any, will depend at such time on its liquidity or its ability to raise additional capital, and/or on receipt of payments or distributions from Charter Holdco and its subsidiaries.

If Charter were to experience a third ownership change in the future (as a result of the transactions with Time Warner Cable, Bright House and Liberty Broadband or from purchases and sales of stock by its 5 - percent stockholders, new issuances or redemptions of its stock, certain acquisitions of its stock and issuances, redemptions, sales or other dispositions or acquisitions

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of interests in its 5 - percent stockholders ), Charter s ability to use its loss carryforwards could become subject to further limitations. Charter s common stock is subject to certain transfer restrictions contained in its amended and restated certificate of incorporation. These restrictions, which are designed to minimize the likelihood of an ownership change occurring and thereby preserve its ability to utilize its loss carryforwards, are not currently operative but could become operative in the future if certain events occur and the restrictions are imposed by Charter s board of directors. However, there can be no assurance that its board of directors would choose to impose these restrictions or that such restrictions, if imposed, would prevent an ownership change from occurring. These restrictions will be eliminated if the Bright House transaction is consummated.

If Charter is unable to retain key employees, its ability to manage its business could be adversely affected.

Charter s operational results have depended, and its future results will depend, upon the retention and continued performance of its management team. Charter s ability to retain and hire new key employees for management positions could be impacted adversely by the competitive environment for management talent in the broadband communications industry. The loss of the services of key members of management and the inability or delay in hiring new key employees could adversely affect Charter s ability to manage its business and its future operational and financial results.

Charter’s inability to successfully acquire and integrate other businesses, assets, products or technologies could harm its operating results.

Charter continuously evaluates and pursues large and small acquisitions and strategic investments in businesses, products or technologies that it believes could complement or expand its business or otherwise offer growth or cost - saving opportunities. From time to time, including in the near term, Charter may enter into letters of intent with companies with which it is negotiating for potential acquisitions or investments, or as to which it is conducting due diligence. An investment in, or acquisition of, complementary businesses, products or technologies in the future could materially decrease the amount of Charter s available cash or require it to seek additional equity or debt financing. Charter may not be successful in negotiating the terms of any potential acquisition, conducting thorough due diligence, financing the acquisition or effectively integrating the acquired business, product or technology into its existing business and operations. Charter s due diligence may fail to identify all of the problems, liabilities or other shortcomings or challenges of an acquired business, product or technology, including issues related to intellectual property, product quality or product architecture, regulatory compliance practices, revenue recognition or other accounting practices, or employee or customer issues.

Additionally, in connection with any acquisitions Charter completes, it may not achieve the growth, synergies or other benefits it expected to achieve, and Charter may incur write - downs, impairment charges or unforeseen liabilities that could negatively affect its operating results or financial position or could otherwise harm its business. Further, contemplating or completing an acquisition and integrating an acquired business, product or technology , individually or across multiple opportunities, could divert management and employee time and resources from other matters.

Charter s business is subject to extensive governmental legislation and regulation, which could adversely affect its business.

Regulation of the cable industry has increased cable operators operational and administrative exp enses and limited their revenue . Cable operators are subject to various laws and regulations including those covering the following:

·

the provisioning and marketing of cable equipment and compatibility with new digital technologies;

·

subscriber and employee privacy and data security;

·

limited rate regulation of video service;

·

copyright royalties for retransmitting broadcast signals;

·

when a cable system must carry a broadcast station or obtain retransmission consent to carry a broadcast station;

·

the provision of channel capacity to unaffiliated commercial leased access programmers;

·

limitations on the ability to enter into exclusive agreements with multiple dwelling unit complexes and control inside wiring;

·

the provision of high - speed Internet service, including net neutrality rules;

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·

classification as a Title   II carrier;

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the provision of voice communications;

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cable franchise renewals and transfers;

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equal employment opportunity, emergency alert systems, disability access, technical standards, marketing practices, customer s ervice, and consumer protection; and

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approval for mergers and acquisitions often accompanied by the imposition of restrictions and requirements on an applicant's business in order to secure approval of the proposed transaction.

Additionally, many aspects of these laws and regulations are often the subject of judicial proceedings and administrative or legislative proposals. There are also ongoing efforts to amend or expand the federal, state, and local regulation of some of the services offered over Charter s cable systems, which may compound the regulatory risks it already faces, and proposals that might make it easier for its employees to unionize. Some states are considering adopting energy efficiency regulations governing the operation of equipment (such as broadband modems) that Charter uses to deliver Internet services, which could constrain innovation in broadband services and equipment. Congress is considering whether to rewrite the entire Communications Act of 1934, as amended, to account for changes in the communications marketplace. Congress and various federal agencies are also considering more focused changes, such as new privacy restrictions and new restrictions on the use of personal and profiling information for behavioral advertising. In response to recent global data breaches, malicious activity and cyber threats, as well as the general increasing concerns regarding the protection of consumers   personal information, Congress and various federal agencies are also considering the adoption of new data security and cybersecurity legislation that could result in additional network and information security requirements for Charter s business. These new laws, as well as existing legal and regulatory obligations, could affect Charter s operations and require significant expenditures. In addition, federal, state, and local regulators could deny necessary approval of the TWC Merger and the Bright House Transaction or impose additional regulatory conditions in conn ection with their review of these t ransactions that could affect its operations.

Charter’s cable system franchises are subject to non-renewal or termination. The failure to renew a franchise in one or more key markets could adversely affect its business.

Charter s cable systems generally operate pursuant to franchises, permits, and similar authorizations issued by a state or local governmental authority controlling the public rights - of - way. Many franchises establish comprehensive facilities and service requirements, as well as specific customer service standards and monetary penalties for non - compliance. In many cases, franchises are terminable if the franchisee fails to comply with significant provisions set forth in the franchise agreement governing system operations. Franchises are generally granted for fixed terms and must be periodically renewed. Franchising authorities may resist granting a renewal if either past performance or the prospective operating proposal is considered inadequate. Franchise authorities often demand concessions or other commitments as a condition to renewal. In some instances, local franchises have not been renewed at expiration, and Charter has operated and is operating under either temporary operating agreements or without a franchise while negotiating renewal terms with the local franc hising authorities.

The traditional cable franchising regime has undergone significant change as a result of various federal and state actions. Some state franchising laws do not allow Charter to immediately opt into favorable statewide franchising as quickly as new entrants, and often require Charter to retain certain franchise obligations that are more burdensome than those applied to new entrants .

There can be no assurance that Charter will be able to comply with all significant provisions of its franchise agreements and certain of its franchisers have from time to time alleged that Charter has not complied with these agreements. Additionally, although historically Charter has renewed its franchises without incurring significant costs, there can be no assurance that Charter will be able to renew, or to renew as favorably, its franchises in the future. A termination of or a sustained failure to renew a franchise in one or more key markets could adversely affect Charter s business in the affected geographic area.

Charter’s cable system franchises are non-exclusive. Accordingly, local and state franchising authorities can grant additional franchises and create additional competition for Charter’s products, resulting in overbuilds, which could adversely affect results of operations.

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Charter s cable system franchises are non - exclusive. Consequently, local and state franchising authorities can grant additional franchises to competitors in the same geographic area or operate their own cable systems. In some cases, local government entities and municipal utilities may legally compete with Charter on more favorable terms. As a result, competing operators may build systems in areas in which Charter holds franchises.

The FCC has adopted rules that streamline entry for new competitors (particularly those affiliated with telephone companies) and reduce franchising burdens for these new entrants. At the same time, a substantial number of states have adopted new franchising laws, principally designed to streamline entry for new competitors, and often provide advantages for these new entrants that are not immediately available to existing operators. Broadband delivery of video content is not necessarily subject to the same franchise obligations applicable to Charter’s traditional cable systems.

The FCC administers a program that collects Universal Service Fund contributions from telecommunications service providers and uses them to subsidize the provision of telecommunications services in high - cost areas and to low - income consumers and the provision of Internet and telecommunications services to schools, libraries and certain health care providers in the future .   Although the FCC decided in the net neutrality proceeding not to require such contributions at this time, a variety of regulatory changes may lead the FCC to expand the collection of Universal Service Fund contributions to encompass Internet service providers. The FCC has begun to redirect some of this funding to broadband deployment in ways that could assist competitors in competing with Charter s services.

Local franchise authorities have the ability to impose additional regulatory constraints on Charter’s business, which could further increase its expenses.

In addition to the franchise agreement, cable authorities in some jurisdictions have adopted cable regulatory ordinances that further regulate the operation of cable systems. This additional regulation increases the cost of operating Charter s business. Local franchising authorities may impose new and more restrictive requirements. Local franchising authorities who are certified to regulate rates in the communities where they operate generally have the power to reduce rates and order refunds on the rates charged for basic service and equipment.

Tax legislation and administrative initiatives or challenges to Charter’s tax positions could adversely affect its results of operations and financial condition.

Charter operates cable systems in locations throughout the United States and, as a result, is subject to the tax laws and regulations of federal, state and local governments. From time to time, various legislative and/or administrative initiatives may be proposed that could adversely affect Charter s tax positions. There can be no assurance that its effective tax rate or tax payments will not be adversely affected by these initiatives. Certain states and localities have imposed or are considering imposing new or additional taxes or fees on Charter s services or changing the methodologies or base on which certain fees and taxes are computed. However, on February 11, 2016, the Senate approved and sent to the President legislation that permanently extends t he federal Internet Tax Freedom Act, which prohibits many taxes on Internet access service. Potential changes include additional taxes or fees on Charter s services which could impact its customers, combined reporting and other changes to general business taxes, central/unit - level assessment of property taxes and other matters that could increase Charter s income, franchise, sales, use and/or property tax liabilities. In addition, federal, state and local tax laws and regulations are extremely complex and subject to varying interpretations. There can be no assurance that Charter s tax positions will not be challenged by relevant tax authorities or that it would be successful in any such challenge.

Further regulation of the cable industry could impair Charter’s ability to raise rates to cover its increasing costs, resulting in increased losses.

Currently, rate regulation of cable systems is strictly limited to the basic service tier and associated equipment and installation activities. However, the FCC and Congress continue to be concerned that cable rate increases are exceeding inflation. It is possible that either the FCC or Congress will further restrict the ability of cable system operators to implement rate increases for Charter s video services or even for its high - speed Internet and voice services. Should this occur, it would impede Charter s ability to raise its rates. If Charter is unable to raise its rates in response to increasing co sts, its losses would increase.

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There has been legislative and regulatory interest in requiring companies that own multiple cable networks to make each of them available on a standalone, rather than a bundled basis to cable operators, and in requiring cable operators to offer historically bundled programming services on an à - la - carte basis to consumers. While any new regulation or legislation designed to enable cable operators to purchase programming on a stand-alone basis could be beneficial to Charter, any such new regulation or legislation that limits how Charter sells programming could adversely affect its business.

Actions by pole owners might subject Charter to significantly increased pole attachment costs.

Pole attachments are cable wires that are attached to utility poles. Cable system attachments to investor - owned public utility poles historically have been regulated at the federal or state level, generally resulting in favorable pole attachment rates for attachments used to provide cable service. In contrast, utility poles owned by municipalities or cooperatives are not subject to federal regulation and are generally exempt from state regulation. In 2011, the FCC amended its pole attachment rules to promote broadband deployment. The order overall strengthens the cable industry s ability to access investor - owned utility poles on reasonable rates, terms and conditions. It also allows for new penalties in certain cases involving unauthorized attachments that could result in additional costs for cable operators. The new rules were affirmed in 2013. On November 17, 2015, the FCC adopted an order on reconsideration that revises the pole attachment regulations to prevent cable operators such as Charter that provide telecommunications services from paying higher pole attachment rates than the cable rates under FCC rules. Future regulatory changes in this area could impact the pole attachment rates Charter pays utility companies.

Increasing regulation of Charter’s Internet service product could adversely affect its ability to provide new products and services.

On February 26, 2015, the FCC adopted open Internet rules that reclassify wireline and wireless broadband services as Title II common carrier services and regulate broadband services offered by Internet service providers (ISPs) under Title II, Title III and Section 706 of the Telecommunications Act. The regulations prohibit ISPs from: (1) blocking access to, or impairing, or degrading, legal content, applications, services or non-harmful devices; and (2) favoring selected Internet traffic in exchange for consideration. The rules also allow the FCC to hear complaints and take enforcement action if it determines that the interconnection agreements of ISPs are not just and reasonable, or if ISPs fail to meet a new general obligation not to unreasonably interfere with or unreasonably disadvantage consumers or edge providers. The rules also require greater transparency by ISPs, including increased disclosure of promotional rates, fees and surcharges. The FCC forbears, or refrains from, imposing certain Title II regulation on ISPs, such as state regulation, tariffs, and last-mile unbundling, and does not assess Universal Service Fund fees on broadband at this time. Multiple parties have challenged the open Internet rules in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (“D.C. Circuit”). The D.C. Circuit is expected to rule on the challenge in 2016. We do not know at the current time if the new regulations adopted by the FCC actually will go into effect or be struck down by a legal appeal, or how the new rules actually would be administered by the FCC, but such rules could limit Charter’s ability to efficiently manage its cable systems and respond to operational and competitive challenges .

Changes in channel carriage regulations could impose significant additional costs on Charter.

Cable operators also face significant regulation of their video channel carriage. Charter can be required to devote substantial capacity to the carriage of programming that it might not carry voluntarily, including certain local broadcast signals; local public, educational and governmental access programming; and unaffiliated, commercial leased access programming (required channel capacity for use by persons unaffiliated with the cable operator who desire to distribute programming over a cable system). The FCC adopted revised commercial leased access rules which would dramatically reduce the rate Charter can charge for leasing this capacity and dramatically increase its administrative burdens, but these remained stayed while under appeal. Legislation has been introduced in Congress in the past that, if adopted, could impact Charter s carriage of broadcast signals by simultaneously eliminating the cable industry s compulsory copyright license and the retransmission consent requirements governing cable s retransmission of broadcast signals. The FCC also continues to consider changes to the rules affecting the relationship between programmers and multichannel video distributors. Future regulatory changes could disrupt existing programming commitments, interfere with Charter s preferred use of limited channel capacity, increase its programming costs, and limit its ability to offer services that would maximize its revenue potential. It is possible that other legal restraints will be adopted limiting Charter s discretion over programming decisions.

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Charter’s voice s ervice is subject to additional regulatory burdens which may increase , causing it to incur additional costs.

Charter offers voice communications services over its broadband network using voice over Internet protocol ( VoIP” ) services. The FCC has ruled that competitive telephone companies that support VoIP services, such as those Charter offers its customers, are entitled to interconnect with incumbent providers of traditional telecommunications services, which ensures that Charter s VoIP services can compete in the market. The scope of these interconnection rights is being reviewed in a current FCC proceeding, which may affect Charter s ability to compete in the provision of voice services or result in additional costs. The FCC has also declared that certain VoIP services are not subject to traditional state public utility regulation. The full extent of the FCC preemption of state and local regulation of VoIP ser vices is not yet clear. Telecommunications companies generally are subject to other significant regulation which could also be extended to VoIP providers. If additional telecommunications regulations are applied to Charter s VoIP service, it could cause Charter to incur additional costs. The FCC has already extended certain traditional telecommunications carrier requirements to many VoIP providers such as Charter, including E-9-1-1, Universal Service Fund collection, Communications Assi stance for Law Enforcement Act ( CALEA”) obligations, privacy of Customer Proprietary Network Information, number porting, rural call completion reporting, disability access and discontinuance of service requirements . In November 2011, the FCC released an order significantly changing the rules governing intercarrier compensation payments for the origination and termination of telephone traffic between carriers, including VoIP service providers like Charter. The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the rules in May 2014. The new rules will result in a substantial decrease in intercarrier compensation payments over a multi -year period.  

Factors Relating to the TWC Merger and the Bright House Transacti on

In order to complete the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, Charter along with Time Warner Cable and Bright House must obtain certain governmental authorizations, and if such authorizations are not made or granted or are granted with conditions to the parties, completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction may be jeopardized or the anticipated benefits of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction could be reduced.

 

The completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction are each conditioned upon, among other things, the expiration or early termination of the applicable waiting periods under the HSR Act and the required governmental authorizations, including an order of the FCC with respect to the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, having been obtained and being in full force and effect. Although Charter and Time Warner Cable have agreed in the Merger Agreement, and Charter and Bright House have agreed in the Contribution Agreement, to use reasonable best efforts, subject to certain limitations, to obtain the required governmental authorizations, there can be no assurance that the relevant waiting periods will expire or that the relevant authorizations will be obtained. In addition, the governmental authorities with or from which these authorizations are required generally have broad discretion in administering the governing regulations. As a condition to authorization of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, these governmental authorities may impose requirements, limitations or costs or require divestitures or place restrictions on the conduct of the combined company’s business after completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. Under the terms of each of the Merger Agreement and Contribution Agreement, subject to certain exceptions, Charter and its subsidiaries are required to accept certain conditions and take certain actions imposed by governmental authorities and accept any other remedies to the extent such actions, conditions or other remedies would not constitute a burdensome condition. There can be no assurance that regulators will not impose conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions and that such conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions will not have the effect of delaying completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction or imposing additional material costs on or materially limiting the revenues of New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) following the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, or otherwise adversely affecting the business and results of operations of New Charter or Charter, as applicable, after completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. In addition, there can be no assurance that these conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions will not result in the delay or abandonment of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction.

 

New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) may not realize anticipated cost synergies and growth opportunities.

 

New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) expects to realize cost synergies, growth opportunities and other financial and operating benefits as a result of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House

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Transaction. The combined company’s success in realizing these cost synergies, growth opportunities and other financial and operating benefits, and the timing of this realization, depends on the successful integration of the business operations obtained in the Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House Transaction. Even if New Charter or Charter, as applicable, is able to integrate the business operations obtained in the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction successfully, it is not possible to predict with certainty if or when these cost synergies, growth opportunities and benefits will occur, or the extent to which they actually will be achieved. For example, the benefits from the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction may be offset by costs incurred in integrating the new business operations or in obtaining or attempting to obtain regulatory approvals for the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, or increased operating costs that may be experienced as a result of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. Realization of any benefits and cost synergies could be affected by the factors described in other risk factors and a number of factors beyond New Charter’s or Charter’s control, as applicable, including, without limitation, general economic conditions, increased operating costs, the response of competitors and vendors and regulatory developments.

 

If New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) is not able to successfully integrate Charter’s business with that of Time Warner Cable and/or Bright House within the anticipated time frame, or at all, the anticipated cost savings and other benefits of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or Bright House Transaction may not be realized fully, or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. In such circumstances, in the event the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if applicable, the Bright House Transaction) are completed, New Charter may not perform as expected and the value of the New Charter Class A common stock (including the merger consideration) may be adversely affected.

 

Charter, Time Warner Cable and Bright House have operated and, until completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or Bright House Transaction, will continue to operate independently, and there can be no assurances that their businesses can be integrated successfully. After consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction the combined company will have significantly more systems, assets, investments, businesses, customers and employees than each company did prior to the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key Charter, Time Warner Cable and/or Bright House employees, the loss of subscribers and customers, the disruption of the companies’ ongoing businesses or in unexpected integration issues, higher than expected integration costs and an overall post-completion integration process that takes longer than originally anticipated. The process of integrating Time Warner Cable, Bright House, or Time Warner Cable and Bright House, with the businesses Charter operated prior to the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction will require significant capital expenditures and the expansion of certain operations and operating and financial systems. Management of each company will be required to devote a significant amount of time and attention to the integration process before the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction is completed. There is a significant degree of difficulty and management involvement inherent in that process. These difficulties include:

 

·

integrating the companies’ operations and corporate functions;

·

integrating the companies’ technologies, networks and customer service platforms;

·

integrating and unifying the product offerings and services available to customers;

·

harmonizing the companies’ operating practices, employee development and compensation programs, internal controls and other policies, procedures and processes;

·

maintaining existing relationships and agreements with customers, providers, programmers and other vendors and avoiding delays in entering into new agreements with prospective customers, providers and vendors;

·

addressing possible differences in business backgrounds, corporate cultures and management philosophies;

·

consolidating the companies’ administrative and information technology infrastructure;

·

coordinating programming and marketing efforts;

·

coordinating geographically dispersed organizations;

·

integrating information, purchasing, provisioning, accounting, finance, sales, billing, payroll, reporting and regulatory compliance systems;

·

integrating and unifying the product offerings and services available to customers, including customer premise equipment and video user interfaces;

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·

completing the conversion of analog systems to all-digital for the systems to be acquired from Time Warner Cable and Bright House;

·

managing a significantly larger company than before the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction; and

·

attracting and retaining the necessary personnel associated with the acquired assets.

Even if the new businesses are successfully integrated, it may not be possible to realize the benefits that are expected to result from the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, or realize these benefits within the time frame that is expected. For example, the elimination of duplicative costs may not be possible or may take longer than anticipated, or the benefits from the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or Bright House Transaction may be offset by costs incurred or delays in integrating the businesses and increased operating costs. If the combined company fails to realize the anticipated benefits from the transactions, its liquidity, results of operations, financial condition and/or share price may be adversely affected. In addition, at times, the attention of certain members of Charter’s, Time Warner Cable’s and/or Bright House’s management and resources may be focused on the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction and the integration of the businesses and diverted from day-to-day business operations, which may disrupt each company’s business and the business of the combined company.

 

The substantial indebtedness that will be incurred by New Charter in connection with the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if applicable, the Bright House Transaction) could adversely affect New Charter’s operations and financial condition after the Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House Transaction.

 

As of December 31, 2015, Charter’s total principal amount of debt was approximately $35.9 billion, including $21.8 billion of debt for which proceeds are held in escrow pending consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger.  New Charter’s and its subsidiaries’ indebtedness could have negative consequences to New Charter after the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if completed, the Bright House Transaction), such as:

·

requiring New Charter to dedicate a substantial portion of its cash flow from operating activities to payments on its indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, research and development efforts, potential strategic acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;

·

limiting New Charter’s ability to obtain additional financing to fund growth, working capital or capital expenditures, or to fulfill debt service requirements or other cash requirements;

·

exposing New Charter to increased interest expense to the extent New Charter refinances existing debt with higher cost debt;

·

to the extent that New Charter’s debt is subject to floating interest rates, increasing New Charter’s vulnerability to fluctuations in market interest rates;

·

placing New Charter at a competitive disadvantage relative to competitors that have less debt;

·

adversely affecting New Charter’s relationship with customers and suppliers;

·

limiting New Charter’s flexibility to pursue other strategic opportunities or in planning for, or reacting to, changes in its business, the cable and telecommunications industries, and the economy at large; and

·

limiting New Charter’s ability to buy back New Charter Class A common stock or pay cash dividends.

If current debt amounts increase, the related risks that Charter now faces may intensify.

 

Because of high debt levels, New Charter may not be able to service its debt obligations in accordance with their terms after the Time Warner Cable Merger (and/or the Bright House Transaction).

 

New Charter’s ability to meet its expense and debt service obligations contained in the agreements governing New Charter’s indebtedness will depend on its future performance, which will be affected by financial, business, economic and other factors, including potential changes in customer preferences, the success of product and marketing innovation and pressure from competitors. Should New Charter’s revenues decline after the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction , it may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to pay its debt service obligations when due. If New Charter is unable to meet its debt service obligations after the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction or should it fail to comply

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with its financial and other restrictive covenants contained in the agreements governing New Charter’s indebtedness, New Charter may be required to refinance all or part of its debt, sell important strategic assets at unfavorable prices or borrow more money. New Charter may not be able to, at any given time, refinance its debt, sell assets or borrow more money on terms acceptable to New Charter or at all. The inability of New Charter to refinance its debt could have a material adverse effect on New Charter’s financial condition and results from operations after the Tim e Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction .

 

New Charter will be dependent on an equity financing from Liberty Broadband to partially finance the Time Warner Cable Merger.

 

Charter plans to use the proceeds of $4.3 billion from the purchase by Liberty Broadband of New Charter Class A common stock to partially fund the Time Warner Cable Merger. Liberty Broadband will primarily rely on proceeds from third-party investors to fund the investment in New Charter Class A common stock, and Liberty Broadband has secured commitments for such financing through investment agreements with such third parties. Liberty Broadband cannot guarantee that it will successfully complete these transactions with such third-party investors. The Time Warner Cable Merger is not conditioned on the receipt of financing, including financing from Liberty Broadband.

 

Charter, Time Warner Cable and Bright House may have difficulty attracting, motivating and retaining executives and other employees in light of the Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House Transaction.

 

Uncertainty about the effect of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction on Charter, Time Warner Cable and Bright House employees may impair Charter’s, Time Warner Cable’s and Bright House’s ability to attract, retain and motivate personnel prior to and following the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. Employee retention may be particularly challenging during the pendency of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, as employees may experience uncertainty about their future roles with the combined business. In addition, certain employees potentially could terminate their employment for good reason and collect severance if certain specified circumstances set forth in their employment agreements occur following the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, including certain changes in such employees’ duties, position, compensation and benefits or primary office location. If employees of Charter, Time Warner Cable or Bright House depart, the integration of the companies may be more difficult and the combined company’s business following the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction may be harmed. Furthermore, New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) may have to incur significant costs in identifying, hiring and retaining replacements for departing employees and may lose significant expertise and talent relating to the businesses of Charter, Time Warner Cable and/or Bright House, and the combined company’s ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction may be adversely affected. In addition, there could be disruptions to or distractions for the workforce and management associated with activities of labor unions or integrating employees into New Charter.

 

A delay in the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction may diminish the anticipated benefits of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction.

 

Completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction is conditioned upon the receipt of certain governmental consents and approvals, orders, authorizations, and rulings, including the expiration or termination of any applicable waiting period (or extension thereof) under the HSR Act and the adoption of an order, by the FCC and any other requisite governmental entity granting its consent to the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. The requirement to receive these consents and approvals, orders, authorizations and rulings before the Time Warner Cable Merger could delay the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction if, for example, government agencies request additional information from the parties in order to facilitate their review of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction or require any conditions precedent to granting their approval of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. In addition, these governmental agencies may attempt to condition their approval of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction on the imposition of conditions that could have a material adverse effect on New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) after the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, including but not limited to its operating results or the value of New Charter Class A common stock (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter Class A common stock). Any delay in the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction could diminish the anticipated benefits of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction or result in additional transaction costs, including interest expense for debt incurred in anticipation of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, loss of revenue or other effects associated with uncertainty about the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. Any

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uncertainty over the ability of the companies to complete the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction could make it more difficult for Charter, Time Warner Cable and Bright House to retain key employees or to pursue business strategies.

 

Prior to the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, Charter, Time Warner Cable and/or Bright House, as applicable, and after the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, the combined company, will incur significant transaction-related costs in connection with the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction.

 

Prior to the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, Charter, Time Warner Cable and/or Bright House, as applicable, and after the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, the combined company, expect to incur a number of non-recurring costs associated with the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction before, at, and after closing the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. If the merger agreement is terminated under certain circumstances, Charter will be required to pay to Time Warner Cable certain termination fees. Charter and/or New Charter also will incur transaction fees and costs related to financing (including interest and fees with any pre-funding of the consideration to be paid in the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction) and formulating and implementing integration plans, including facilities and systems implementation costs and employment-related costs. Some of these costs have already been incurred or may be incurred regardless of whether the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction is completed, including a portion of the fees and expenses of financial advisors and other advisors and representatives and filing fees for the proxy statement. While many of the expenses that will be incurred, by their nature, are difficult to estimate accurately at the present time, management of Charter continues to assess the magnitude of these costs, and additional unanticipated costs may be incurred in connection with the Time Warner Cable Merger and integration. There are a number of factors beyond the control of the parties that could affect the total amount or the timing of all of the expected integration expenses. Although the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the businesses, should offset integration-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, or at all. These integration expenses may result in Charter and/or New Charter taking significant charges against earnings following the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction. In addition, if the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction is not consummated, Charter will bear some or all of these costs without the benefit of efficiencies from the integration of the businesses. Such costs could have a material adverse impact on Charter and/or New Charter’s financial results.

 

Sales of New Charter Class A common stock after the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if completed, the Bright House Transaction) may negatively affect the market price of New Charter Class A common stock.

 

The shares of New Charter Class A common stock to be issued in the Time Warner Cable Merger to holders of Time Warner Cable common stock will generally be eligible for immediate resale. The market price of New Charter Class A common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of New Charter Class A common stock in the market after the consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if completed, the Bright House Transaction) or even the perception that these sales could occur.

 

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Charter’s, Time Warner Cable’s and Bright House’s business relationships may be subject to disruption due to uncertainty associated with the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction.

 

Parties with which Charter, Time Warner Cable or Bright House do business may experience uncertainty associated with the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, including with respect to current or future business relationships with Charter, Time Warner Cable, Bright House or the combined business. Charter’s, Time Warner Cable’s and Bright House’s business relationships may be subject to disruption as customers, distributors, suppliers, vendors and others may attempt to negotiate changes in existing business relationships or consider entering into business relationships with parties excluding Charter, Time Warner Cable, Bright House or the combined business. These disruptions, which may exist for an extended period of time if completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if completed, the Bright House Transaction) is delayed, could have an adverse effect on the businesses, financial condition, results of operations or prospects of the combined business, including an adverse effect on New Charter’s ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if completed, the Bright House Transaction). The risk, and adverse effect, of such disruptions could be exacerbated by a delay in completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction or termination of the merger agreement and/or the Bright House contribution agreement.

 

Failure to complete the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction could negatively impact the stock price and the future business and financial results of Charter.

 

If the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction is not completed for any reason, the ongoing business of Charter may be adversely affected and, without realizing any of the benefits of having completed the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction, Charter would be subject to a number of risks, including the following:

 

·

Charter may experience negative reactions from the financial markets, including negative impacts on its stock price;

·

Charter may experience negative reactions from its customers, regulators and employees;

·

Charter will be required to pay certain costs relating to the Time Warner Cable Merger, whether or not the Time Warner Cable Merger is completed and Charter will be required to pay certain costs relating to the Bright House Transaction, whether or not the Bright House Transaction is completed;

·

the Merger Agreement places certain restrictions on the conduct of Time Warner Cable’s and Charter’s businesses prior to completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger; such restrictions, the waiver of which is subject to the consent of the other party (in certain cases, not to be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed), may prevent Time Warner Cable and Charter from making certain acquisitions, taking certain other specified actions or otherwise pursuing business opportunities during the pendency of the Time Warner Cable Merger;

·

the Contribution Agreement places certain restrictions on the conduct of Charter’s business prior to completion of the Bright House Transaction; such restrictions, the waiver of which is subject to the consent of A/N (in certain cases, not to be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed), may prevent Charter from taking certain specified actions or otherwise pursuing business opportunities during the pendency of the Bright House Transaction; and

·

matters relating to the Time Warner Cable Merger (and with respect to Charter only, matters relating to the Bright House contribution), including integration planning, will require substantial commitments of time and resources by Charter and Time Warner Cable management, which would otherwise have been devoted to day-to-day operations and other opportunities that may have been beneficial to either Charter or Time Warner Cable as an independent company.

If the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction is not completed, the risks described above may materialize, and they may adversely affect Charter’s business, financial condition, financial results and stock price.

 

In addition, Charter and Time Warner Cable could be subject to litigation related to any failure to complete the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction or related to any enforcement proceeding commenced against Charter or Time Warner Cable to perform their respective obligations under the Merger Agreement or against Charter to perform it obligations under the Contribution Agreement.

 

If the operating results of Time Warner Cable and/or Bright House before or following the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction is less than Charter’s and/or New Charter’s expectations, or an increase in the capital

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expenditures to upgrade and maintain those assets as well as to keep pace with technological developments are greater than expected, New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) may not achieve the expected level of financial results from the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction.

 

New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) will derive a portion of its revenues and earnings per share from the operation of Time Warner Cable and/or Bright House following completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or Bright House Transaction. Therefore, any negative impact on these companies or the operating results derived from such companies could harm the combined company’s operating results.

 

The businesses of Charter, Time Warner Cable, Bright House and New Charter are characterized by rapid technological change and the introduction of new products and services. New Charter (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter) intends to make investments in the combined business following the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or the Bright House Transaction and transition toward only using two-way all-digital set-top boxes. The increase in capital expenditures necessary for the transition toward two-way set-top boxes in the business may negatively impact the expected financial results from the Time Warner Cable Merger and/or Bright House Transaction. The combined company may not be able to fund the capital expenditures necessary to keep pace with technological developments, execute the plans to do so, or anticipate the demand of its customers for products and services requiring new technology or bandwidth. New Charter’s (or, if only the Bright House Transaction is completed, Charter’s) inability to maintain, expand and upgrade its existing or combined businesses could materially adversely affect its financial condition and results of operations.

 

The Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House Transaction will be accounted for as an acquisition by New Charter in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Under the acquisition method of accounting, the assets and liabilities of Time Warner Cable and Bright House will be recorded, as of the date of completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger, the Bright House Transaction and Liberty Broadband transactions, at their respective fair values and added to those of Charter. The reported financial condition and results of operations of New Charter issued after completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger, the Bright House Transaction and Liberty Broadband transactions will reflect New Charter balances and results after completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger, the Bright House Transaction and Liberty Broadband transactions, but will not be restated retroactively to reflect the historical financial position or results of operations of New Charter for periods prior to the Time Warner Cable Merger, the Bright House Transaction and Liberty Broadband transactions. Under the acquisition method of accounting, the total purchase price will be allocated to Time Warner Cable’s and Bright House’s tangible assets and liabilities and identifiable intangible assets based on their fair values as of the date of completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger, the Bright House Transaction and Liberty Broadband transactions.

 

The excess of the purchase price over those fair values will be recorded as goodwill. Charter, Time Warner Cable and Bright House expect that the Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House Transaction will result in the creation of goodwill based upon the application of the acquisition method of accounting. To the extent the value of goodwill or intangibles becomes impaired, New Charter may be required to incur material charges relating to such impairment. Such a potential impairment charge could have a material impact on New Charter’s operating results.

 

Completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger is subject to a number of conditions and if these conditions are not satisfied or waived, the Time Warner Cable Merger will not be completed.

 

The obligations of Charter and Time Warner Cable to complete the Time Warner Cable Merger are subject to satisfaction or waiver of a number of conditions, including, among others:

 

·

expiration or termination of any applicable waiting period (or extension thereof) under the HSR Act relating to the transactions contemplated by the merger agreement (solely with respect to the obligations of each of Charter, New Charter and the merger subsidiaries to complete the Time Warner Cable Merger, without the imposition of any burdensome condition);

·

(i) adoption of an order, and release of the full text thereof, by the FCC granting its consent to the transfer of control or assignment of the licenses issued by the FCC to Time Warner Cable or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, (ii) approval of certain local franchise authorities (“LFAs”), such that the sum of the aggregate number of video subscribers of Time Warner Cable belonging to franchise areas for which either (x) no LFA consent is required or (y) if LFA consent is required, such consent shall have been obtained, shall be no less than 85% of the aggregate number of video subscribers of Time Warner Cable and (iii) authorizations of state public utilities commissions

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whose consent is required in connection with the transactions contemplated by the merger agreement (solely with respect to the obligations of each of Charter, New Charter and the merger subsidiaries to complete the Time Warner Cable Merger, in each case without the imposition of any burdensome condition);

·

except for the conditions described in the two preceding bullets, (i) absence of (x) any applicable law of a governmental authority of competent jurisdiction enacted or promulgated after the date of the merger agreement in a jurisdiction in which any of Charter, Time Warner Cable or their respective subsidiaries has substantial operations and (y) any order of a governmental authority of competent jurisdiction that, in each case, (1) imposes any burdensome condition or (2) prohibits completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger and the violation of which would result in criminal liability, and (ii) the absence of any injunction (whether temporary, preliminary or permanent) by any governmental authority of competent jurisdiction that imposes a burdensome condition or prohibits completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger;

·

approval for the listing on NASDAQ of the shares of New Charter Class A common stock to be issued in the Time Warner Cable Merger, subject only to official notice of issuance;

·

accuracy of the representations and warranties made in the merger agreement by the other party, subject to certain materiality thresholds;

·

performance in all material respects by the other party of the material obligations required to be performed by it at or prior to completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger;

·

the absence of a material adverse effect on the other party;

·

receipt of a certificate executed by an executive officer of the other party as to the satisfaction of the conditions described in the preceding three bullets with respect to such other party; and

·

delivery of opinions of Wachtell, Lipton, Rosen & Katz, in the case of Charter, and Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison LLP, in the case of Time Warner Cable, with respect to certain tax aspects of the Time Warner Cable Merger.

There can be no assurance that the conditions to closing of the Time Warner Cable Merger will be satisfied or waived or that the Time Warner Cable Merger will be completed. There can be no assurance that these conditions will not result in the abandonment or delay of the Time Warner Cable Merger. The occurrence of any of these events individually or in combination could have a material adverse effect on the companies’ results of operations and the trading price of the Time Warner Cable common stock or Charter Class A common stock.

 

The Time Warner Cable Merger is not conditioned upon completion of the Bright House Transaction or the issuance of shares to A/N. The Time Warner Cable Merger and the Bright House Transaction are subject to separate conditions, and the Time Warner Cable Merger may be completed whether or not the Bright House Transaction is ultimately consummated.

 

The market price of New Charter Class A common stock after the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if completed, the Bright House Transaction) may be affected by factors different from those affecting shares of Charter or Time Warner Cable common stock currently.

 

Upon completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger, holders of Charter Class A common stock will become holders of shares of New Charter Class A common stock. The businesses of Charter differ from those of Time Warner Cable in important respects, including the following:

 

·

Differences in product penetration and mix, including different approaches to pricing and packaging;

·

Differences in the geographic operating areas served by Charter, Time Warner Cable and Bright House as well as different presences in those areas, different structures and different competitive factors in those areas;

·

Differences in the technology platforms and physical plant and property used to deliver the companies’ respective products and services, including that Charter’s platform has generally been converted to all digital;

·

Differences in the companies’ corporate and organizational structure;

·

Time Warner Cable engages in telecom and Internet infrastructure businesses, including through its subsidiary DukeNet Communications;

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·

Time Warner Cable engages in information technology ("IT") and cloud businesses, including through its NaviSite subsidiary, outsourced IT solutions and cloud services;

·

Time Warner Cable operates and distributes regional sports networks and local sports, news and lifestyle channels; and

·

Differences in the potential tax treatment of historical transactions of both Charter and Time Warner Cable.

Accordingly, the results of operations, including capital expenditures, of New Charter after the Time Warner Cable Merger (and, if completed, the Bright House Transaction), as well as the market price of New Charter Class A common stock, may be affected by factors different from those currently affecting the results of operations, including capital expenditures, of Charter and Time Warner Cable currently.

 

The shares of New Charter Class A common stock to be received by Time Warner Cable and Charter stockholders as a result of the Time Warner Cable Merger will have different rights from shares of Time Warner Cable common stock and Charter Class A common stock previously held by such stockholders.

 

Following completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger, Time Warner Cable and Charter stockholders will no longer be stockholders of Time Warner Cable and Charter, respectively, but will instead be stockholders of New Charter. There are important differences between the rights of Time Warner Cable and Charter stockholders and the rights of New Charter stockholders.

 

Litigation has been filed against Charter, Charter’s board of directors, Time Warner Cable, the Time Warner Cable board of directors and the merger subsidiaries. An adverse ruling in such lawsuit may result in the payment of damages following completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger.

 

Litigation has been filed against Charter, Time Warner Cable, the Time Warner Cable board of directors and the merger subsidiaries in connection with the Time Warner Cable Merger, which could result in substantial costs to Charter, Time Warner Cable, and/or New Charter. See “Item 3. - Legal Proceedings” for more information.

 

Completion of the Bright House Transaction is subject to a number of conditions and if these conditions are not satisfied or waived, the Bright House Transaction will not be completed.

 

The obligation of Charter and New Charter and the obligation of A/N to complete the Bright House Transaction are subject to satisfaction or waiver of a number of conditions, including, among others:

 

·

the consummation of the Time Warner Cable Merger, except in certain circumstances;

·

expiration or termination of the HSR Act waiting period and receipt of certain regulatory approvals for the Bright House Transaction (and with respect to Charter’s obligations, without the imposition of a Bright House contribution burdensome condition);

·

obtaining all of the required consents by the FCC to the transfer to Charter of all FCC licenses, authorizations, permits and consents held by Bright House or its subsidiaries and/or used in the Bright House business (solely with respect to Charter, New Charter and Charter Holdings, without the imposition of a Bright House contribution burdensome);

·

the aggregate number of video customers served by the Bright House systems used in the Bright House business (i) pursuant to the “grandfathering” provisions of the Communications Act and (ii) pursuant to franchises for which (A) no consent is required from any government entity for the completion of the Bright House contribution or (B) any such consent is required and has been received (or deemed received under Section 617 of the Communications Act) (solely with respect to the obligations of Charter, New Charter and Charter Holdings, without the imposition of a Bright House contribution burdensome condition) shall not be less than 80% of the video customers served by the Bright House systems used in the Bright House business at the closing; and if less than 100% of such number of video customers, all applicable waiting periods (including extensions) shall have expired with respect to the FCC Forms 394 filed in connection with requests for approvals by local franchising authorities that have not been obtained;

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·

obtaining authorizations from state communications authorities as required for Charter to provide voice and other regulated services in the Bright House systems used in the Bright House business following the closing (solely with respect to the obligations of Charter, New Charter and Charter Holdings, without the imposition of a Bright House contribution burdensome condition);

·

the absence of any statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, judgment, injunction or other order (whether temporary, preliminary or permanent) in effect that makes unlawful, prohibits, delays, enjoins or otherwise prevents or restricts, the consummation of the Bright House Transaction or any pending action that seeks any of the foregoing;

·

the Second Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement being valid, binding and enforceable and in full force and effect;

·

with respect to the obligations of Charter, New Charter and Charter Holdings, the absence of a material adverse effect with respect to Bright House;

·

with respect to A/N’s obligations, the absence of a material adverse effect with respect to Charter; and

·

certain other customary conditions with respect to the accuracy of representations and warranties, performance of covenants and agreements, receipt of certifications with respect to the satisfaction of certain conditions, and delivery of certain other specified certificates, instruments of assignment and transaction documents.

As more fully described in the Contribution Agreement, the obligation of Charter, New Charter and Charter Holdings to complete the Bright House Transaction is also subject to the completion by A/N of a restructuring, pursuant to which Bright House will transfer to A/N certain excluded assets and A/N shall assume from Bright House certain excluded liabilities.

 

There can be no assurance that the conditions to closing of the Bright House Transaction will be satisfied or waived or that the Bright House Transaction will be completed. The consummation of the Bright House Transaction is conditioned on the completion of the Time Warner Cable Merger. However, if the Time Warner Cable Merger is not completed, Charter and A/N may still be obligated to complete the Bright House Transaction under certain circumstances. There can be no assurance that the Bright House Transaction will be completed if the Time Warner Cable Merger is not completed.

Factors Relating to TruePosition

TruePosition and its subsidiary Skyhook face competition from multiple sources.

TruePosition faces co mpetition from a number of suppliers of both WiFi based technology solutions and other wireless location technologies, such as GPS, Observed Time Difference of Arrival “ OTDOA ” and Terrestrial Beacons, which provide similar location-based products and services to TruePosition. Skyhook faces competition from Google, Inc. “ Google” , HERE and smaller regional or niche market competitors, as providers of location-based services and products. Certain of these competitors are substantially larger than TruePosition or Skyhook, as applicable, and have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources. Thus, many of these large enterprises are in a better position to withstand any significant reduction in spending by customers in its markets, and often have broader product lines and market focus, have greater brand recognition and may not be as susceptible to downturns in a single market. These competitors may also be able to bundle their products together to meet the needs of a particular customer, may be able to respond more rapidly to new or emerging technologies or changes in customer requirements and may be capable of delivering more complete solutions than TruePosition or Skyhook is able to provide. If large enterprises that currently do not compete directly with TruePosition or Skyhook choose to enter its markets by acquisition or otherwise, competition would likely intensify. In addition, the growth of new location technologies currently in development may further increase competition to provide these new technologies. If TruePosition and Skyhook are not able to compete successfully for customers, the financial position of TruePosition may be materially adversely affected.

The revenue of TruePosition and Skyhook each depend on a limited number of customers, and the loss of their more significant customers could adversely affect the business of TruePosition.

TruePosition and its operating subsidiary Skyhook derive a significant amount of their respective revenue from a limited number of customers, and it is anticipated that these customers will continue to represent a significant portion of the revenue of TruePosition and Skyhook individually and in the aggregate. Because they depend on a limited number of customers, the loss of

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any one of these customers could have a material adverse effect on the operating results of TruePosition. Certain of these customers may fail to renew their contracts with TruePosition or Skyhook from time to time, creating additional risk with respect to the potential loss of revenue from these customers. For example, TruePosition has been largely dependent since 2012 on one wireless carrier, which accounted for approximately 80% - 90% of TruePosition’s overall revenue, and this customer did not renew this contract when it expired on December 31, 2015 . The loss or reduction of business from one or a combination of these existing customers of True Position or Skyhook would materially adversely affect revenue, financial condition and results of operations of TruePosition.

The revenue of TruePosition and Skyhook each depend on the commercial deployment of wireless and other communications technologies and their ability to continue to drive customer demand for their products and services in a rapidly evolving and developing industry.

TruePosition and Skyhook each develop, patent and commercialize products and services based on wireless and other communications technologies. They depend on their customers, licensees, operators of these wireless technologies and networks and other industries to use and timely deploy their products and services. TruePosition and Skyhook also depend on their customers and licensees to develop products and services with value - added features to drive sales as well as consumer demand for new wireless devices. As a result, TruePosition and Skyhook must stay abreast of rapidly evolving technological developments and offerings to remain competitive and increase the utility of their products and services, and they must be able to incorporate new technologies into their products and services in order to address the needs of their customers. The failure to successfully introduce new or enhanced products and services on a timely and cost - competitive basis that comply with evolving industry standards and regulations or the inability to continue to market existing products on a cost - competitive basis could have a material adverse effect on TruePosition s results of oper ations and financial condition.

In addition, in order to successfully develop and market certain of TruePosition s or Skyhook s products and services, TruePosition or Skyhook may be required to enter into technology development or licensing agreements with third parties. TruePosition and Skyhook cannot provide assurances that they will be able to timely enter into any necessary technology development or licensing agreements on reasonable terms, or at all.

Changes to the regulatory environment in which TruePosition or Skyhook’s customers operate may negatively impact their business.

In the U.S., the FCC regulates wireless carriers, wireless services and E- 9-1-1 requirements. FCC regulatory actions affecting wireless carriers and services and E-9-1-1 requirements may adversely affect TruePosition’s wireless phone and device location technology and the positioning services offered by Skyhook. The E-9-1-1 location accuracy requirements originally adopted by the FCC in 1996 applied only to 911 calls originating outdoors. However, because of the increased use of wireless phones indoors, o n January 29, 2015, the FCC adopted indoor location accuracy rules its Fourth Report and Order in its E-9-1-1 location accuracy proceeding. Under the new rules, all wireless providers generally must provide horizon tal location information for 40% of all wireless 911 calls within 2 years of the effective date of the Fourth Report and Order ( April 30, 2015 ), 50% within 3 years, 70% within 5 years and 80 % within 6 years of the effective date. Wireless providers also must meet specific requirements for the provision of vertical location information for wireless 911 calls within three-to-eight years of the effective date.  Smaller wireless providers may have additional time to comply with certain of the horiz ontal and vertical benchmarks.

A distinguishing characteristic of TruePosition’s technologies is their ability to locate wireless devices indoors, where GPS signals may be compromised or blocked.   As the rules currently stand, they may offer opportunity to TruePosition’s technologies. However, even if TruePosition is able to produce and provide products and services compliant with these regulations, much uncertainty exists as to whether TruePosition will be able to successfully compete for carrier contracts.

TruePosition will be actively competing for carrier contracts required t o comply with the regulation s . Even if TruePosition is able to produce and provide products and services compliant with these regulations, until information regarding any compliant products and services offered by TruePosition s competitors becomes available, much uncertainty exists as to whether TruePosition will be able to successfully compete for carrier contracts.

Other U.S. regulatory agencies also may seek to regulate aspects of the services provided by TruePosition and Skyhook. Further, to the extent TruePosition and Skyhook operate abroad, both businesses are subject to potential action by foreign

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regulatory agencies. TruePosition cannot anticipate how such additional regulation by the FCC, another U.S. Government agency, or any foreign regulator will affect its businesses.

The success of TruePosition and Skyhook depends on the integrity of their systems and infrastructures.

TruePosition and Skyhook rely on their enterprise resource planning systems to support such critical business operations as processing sales orders and invoicing, purchasing and supply chain management, human resources and financial reporting. Portions of TruePosition s or Skyhook s IT infrastructure may experience interruptions of service or produce errors in connection with systemic failures, systems integration or migration work that takes place from time to time. TruePosition and Skyhook may not be successful in implementing new systems and transitioning data, which could cause business disruptions and be more expensive, time consuming, disruptive and resource - intensive. If TruePosition and Skyhook are unable to successfully implement major systems initiatives and maintain critical information systems, they could encounter difficulties that could have a material adverse impact on TruePosition s business.

Furthermore, the businesses of TruePosition and Skyhook depend on delivering products and services to customers of consistently high quality and reliability. If the services offered by TruePosition or Skyhook were to fail or not to perform as expected, their services could be rendered ineffective, and any significant or systemic service failure could also result in a loss of customer confidence, as well as reputational damage, resulting in a material adverse impact on TruePosition s business.

Privacy concerns relating to the technology of TruePosition and Skyhook could damage their reputations and deter current and potential users from using their products and applications.

Concerns about the practices of TruePosition and Skyhook with regard to the collection, use, disclosure, or security of personal information, user location information or other privacy related matters, even if unfounded, could damage their reputations and operating results. While TruePosition and Skyhook strive to comply with all applicable data protection laws and regulations, as well as their own posted privacy policies, any failure or perceived failure to comply may result in proceedings or actions against TruePosition or Skyhook by government entities or others, or could cause them to lose users and customers, which could potentially have an adverse effect on TruePosition s business.

Regulatory authorities around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere are often uncertain and in flux. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with the data practices of TruePosition and Skyhook. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, this could result in an order requiring changes in the data practices of TruePosition and Skyhook, which could have an adverse effect on the business and results of operations of TruePosition. Complying with these various laws could result in the incurrence of substantial costs or require changes to business practices in a manner adverse to the business of TruePosition and Skyhook.

Security breaches and other disruptions, including as a result of cyber attacks, could compromise the information collected and stored by TruePosition and Skyhook and expose them to liability, which would cause business and reputational damage.

In the ordinary course of their respective businesses, each of TruePosition and Skyhook collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, their proprietary business information and that of their customers and suppliers, and potentially personally identifiable information of their users and employees, in their facilities and on their networks. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information is important to their operations. Despite security measures in place at TruePosition and Skyhook, their information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise their networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, disruption of operations, reputational damage, and cause a loss of confidence, which could adversely affect TruePosition s business and revenue.

Actions taken by TruePosition and Skyhook to adequately protect their respective intellectual property rights, such as litigation to defend against alleged infringement of intellectual property rights or to enforce their intellectual property rights, could result in substantial costs, and their ability to compete could be harmed if they fail to take such actions or are unsuccessful in doing so.

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TruePosition and Skyhook rely primarily on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secrets, employee and third - party nondisclosure agreements, licensing arrangements and other methods to protect their intellectual property in the United States and internationally. TruePosition and Skyhook have numerous patents issued, allowed and pending in the United States and/or in foreign jurisdictions which primarily relate to products and the technology used in connection with the products and services offered by TruePosition and Skyhook. TruePosition and Skyhook cannot be certain that the steps they have taken, or may take in the future, will prevent the misappropriation or unauthorized use of their proprietary information and technologies, particularly in foreign countries where international treaties, organizations and foreign laws may not protect their proprietary intellectual property rights as fully or as readily as United States laws or where the enforcement of such laws may be lacking or ineffective. Any pending patent applications and any future applications may not be approved, and any issued patents may not provide TruePosition or Skyhook with competitive advantages or may be challenged, invalidated, infringed, circumvented or misappropriated by third parties. Other companies, including some of TruePosition s and Skyhook s largest competitors, hold intellectual property rights in its industry and the intellectual property rights of others could inhibit TruePosition s and Skyhook s ability to introduce new products and services unless it secures necessary licenses on commercially reasonable terms. Furthermore, as the number of issued patents increases and as competition intensifies, the volume of intellectual property infringement claims and lawsuits may also increase. TruePosition and Skyhook may in the future become involved in lawsuits or other legal proceedings alleging patent infringement or other intellectual property rights violations by TruePosition or Skyhook or parties that they have agreed to indemnify for certain claims of infringement. Third parties may also claim that employees of TruePosition or Skyhook have misappropriated or divulged their former employers trade secrets or confidential information. An unfavorable ruling in any such intellectual property related litigation could include significant damages, invalidation of a patent or family of patents, indemnification of customers, payment of lost profits, or, when it has been sought, injunctive relief.

In addition, TruePosition and Skyhook have been required and may be required in the future to initiate litigation in order to assert claims of infringement of their intellectual property, enforce patents issued or licensed to them, protect their trade secrets or know - how or to determine the scope and/or validity of a third party s patent or other proprietary rights. TruePosition and Skyhook also have been and may in the future be subject to lawsuits by third parties seeking to enforce their own intellectual property rights. Any such litigation, regardless of outcome, could subject TruePosition or Skyhook to significant costs or liabilities or require them to cease using proprietary third party technology and, consequently, could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations and financial condition of TruePosition. Any such litigation could also result in rulings impacting the validity or enforceability of TruePosition s or Skyhook s patents, which could result in new or increased competition that could have a material adverse effect on TruePosition s results of operations and financial condition. If infringement claims are made against TruePosition or Skyhook or their products are found to infringe a third parties patent or intellectual property, TruePosition, Skyhook or one of their indemnitees may have to seek a license to the third parties patent or other intellectual property rights. However, TruePosition and Skyhook may not be able to obtain licenses at all or on terms acceptable to them particularly from their competitors. If they or one of their indemnitees is unable to obtain a license from a third party for technology that TruePosition or Skyhook use or that is used in one of their products, TruePosition or Skyhook could be subject to substantial liabilities or have to suspend or discontinue the manufacture and sale of one or more of their products. They may also have to make royalty or other payments, cross license their technology or make payments pursuant to third party indemnitees. See “Item 3 – Legal Proceedings” for additional information about pending litigation and indemnification claims.

In addition, TruePosition maintains as its trade secrets certain data compilations and other information. Breach of one or more of these trade secrets could have a material adverse effect on TruePosition s results of operations and financial condition.

Factors Relating to our Common Stock and the Securities Market

We expect our stock price to continue to be directly affected by the results of operation of Charter and developments in its business.

The fair value of our investment in Charter, on an as-converted basis, was approximately $5.3  billion as of December 31, 2015 , which represents all of our total market value. As a result, our stock price will continue to be directly affected by the results of operations of Charter and the developments in its business.

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Although our Series B common stock is quoted on the OTC Markets, there is no meaningful trading market for the stock.

Our Series B common stock is not widely held, with approximately 96 % of the outstanding shares beneficially owned by John C. Malone, the Chairman of the board and a director of our company. Although it is quoted on the OTC Markets, it is sparsely traded and does not have an active trading market. The OTC Markets tend to be highly illiquid, in part, because there is no national quotation system by which potential investors can track the market price of shares except through information received or generated by a limited number of broker-dealers that make markets in particular stocks. There is also a greater chance of market volatility for securities that trade on the OTC Markets as opposed to a national exchange or quotation system. This volatility is due to a variety of factors, including a lack of readily available price quotations, lower trading volume, absence of consistent administrative supervision of "bid" and "ask" quotations, and market conditions. Each share of the Series B common stock is convertible, at any time at the option of the holder, into one share of our Series A common stock, which is listed and traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "LBRDA."

It may be difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so may be beneficial to our stockholders.

Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company that a stockholder may consider favorable. These provisions include the following:

·

authorizing a capital structure with multiple series of common stock: a Series B that entitles the holders to ten votes per share, a Series A that entitles the holders to one vote per share and a Series C that, except as otherwise required by applicable law, entitles the holders to no voting rights;

·

authorizing the issuance of blank check preferred stock, which could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;

·

classifying our board of directors with staggered three - year terms, which may lengthen the time required to gain control of our board of directors;

·

limiting who may call special meetings of stockholders;

·

prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders;

·

establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings;

·

requiring stockholder approval by holders of at least 80% of our voting power or the approval by at least 75% of our board of directors with respect to certain extraordinary matters, such as a merger or consolidation of our company, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or an amendment to our certificate of incorporation; and

·

the existence of authorized and unissued stock which would allow our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, thereby protecting the continuity of its management, or which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of persons seeking to obtain control of us.

In addition, John C. Malone currently beneficially owns shares representing the power to direct approximately 47 % of the aggregate voting power in our company, due to his bene ficial ownership approximately 9 6 % of the outstanding shares of our Series B common stock as of   January 31 , 201 6 .

Holders of a single series of our common stock may not have any remedies if an action by our directors has an adverse effect on only that series of our common stock.

Principles of Delaware law and the provisions of our certificate of incorporation may protect decisions of our board of directors that have a disparate impact upon holders of any single series of our common stock. Under Delaware law, the board of directors has a duty to act with due care and in the best interests of all of our stockholders, including the holders of all series of our common stock. Principles of Delaware law established in cases involving differing treatment of multiple classes or series of stock provide that a board of directors owes an equal duty to all common stockholders regardless of class or series and does not

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have separate or additional duties to any group of stockholders. As a result, in some circumstances, our directors may be required to make a decision that is viewed as adverse to the holders of one series of our common stock. Under the principles of Delaware law and the business judgment rule, holders may not be able to successfully challenge decisions that they believe have a disparate impact upon the holders of one series of our stock if our board of directors is disinterested and independent with respect to the action taken, is adequately informed with respect to the action taken and acts in good faith and in the honest belief that the board is acting in the best interest of all of our stockholders.

Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comment s

None.

Item 2.  Properties .

Liberty Broadband

In connection with the Broadband Spin - Off, a wholly -owned subsidiary of Liberty enter ed into a facilities sharing agreement with Liberty Broadband, pursuant to which Liberty Broadband share s office facilities with Liberty, Liberty Interactive and Liberty TripAdvisor Holdings, Inc. located at 12300 Liberty Boulevard, Englewood, Colorado.

Charter

Charter s principal physical assets consist of cable distribution plant and equipment, including signal receiving, encoding and decoding devices, headend reception facilities, distribution systems, and customer premise equipment for each of its cable systems.

Charter s cable plant and related equipment are generally attached to utility poles under pole rental agreements with local public utilities and telephone companies, and in certain locations are buried in underground ducts or trenches. Charter owns or leases real property for signal reception sites, and owns its service vehicles.

Charter s subsidiaries generally lease space for business offices. Charter s headend and tower locations are located on owned or leased parcels of land, and it generally owns the towers on which its equipment is located. Charter Holdco owns the land and building for its St. Louis corporate office. Charter leases space for its corporate headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.

The physical components of Charter s cable systems require maintenance as well as periodic upgrades to support the new services and products Charter introduce s . Charter believes that its properties are generally in good operating condition and are suitable for its business operations.

TruePosition

TruePosition has its corporate headquarters in Berwyn, Pennsylvania. TruePosition leases its 70,000 square foot facility for its headquarters and research and development operations pursuant to a lease agreement which expires in part in 2016 and completely in 2017.

Skyhook has its corporate headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. Skyhook leases its 7,900 square foot facility for its headquarters pursuant to a lease agreement which expires in 2018 .

Item 3. Legal Proceeding s

Charter - New York Litigation  

I n connection with the formerly proposed Comcast-Time Warner Cable merger, eight putative class action complaints were filed on behalf of purported Time Warner Cable stockholders in the New York Supreme Court (the “NY Actions”) and the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware. These complaints named a s defendants Time Warner Cable , Comcast and their

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respective officers and directors . The complaints generally alleged, among other things, that the members of the Time Warner Cable and Comcast board s of directors breached their fiduciary duties to their respective stockholders during merger negotiations by entering into the merger agreement and approving the merger, and that Time Warner Cable, Comcast and the holding company created to merge the companies aided and abetted such breaches of fiduciary duties. The complaints further alleged that the joint proxy statement/prospectus filed by Comcast with the SEC on March 20, 2014 was misleading or omitted certain material information. The complaint s sought unspecified declatory and equitable relief, compensatory damages in an unspecified amount, injunctive relief and costs and fees. The parties entered into a settlement agreement, conditioned on the consummation of the Comcast-Time Warner Cable merger. Now that the Comcast-Time Warner Cable merger agreement has been terminated, this settlement agr eement is no longer operative.

O n June 29, 2015, the parties in the NY Actions filed a stipulation agreeing that plaintiffs could file a Second Consolidated Class Action Complaint (the “Second Amended Complaint”), and dismissing the action with prejudice as to Comcast and Tango Acquisition Sub, Inc. After the court so ordered the stipulation, the plaintiffs in the NY Actions filed the Second Amended Complaint on July 1, 2015. The Second Amended Complaint named as defendants Time Warner Cable, the members of the Time Warner Cable board of directors, Charter and the merger subsidiaries. The Second Amended Complaint generally alleged, among other things, that the members of the Time Warner Cable board of directors breached their fiduciary duties to Time Warner Cable stockholders during the Charter merger negotiations and by entering into the merger agreement and approving the mergers, and that Charter and its subsidiaries aided and abetted such breaches of fiduciary duties. The complaint sought, among other relief, an injunction against the stockholder vote on the mergers, compensatory damages in an unspecified amount, unspecified declatory and equitable relief and costs and attorneys’ fees.

On September 9, 2015, the parties entered into a memorandum of understanding (“MOU”) to settle the action. Pursuant to the MOU, defendants issued certain supplemental disclosures relating to the mergers on a Form 8-K, and plaintiffs agreed to release with prejudice all claims that could have been asserted against defendants in connection with the mergers. The settlement is conditioned on, among other things, consummation of the transactions between Time Warner Cable and Charter, and must be approved by the New York Supreme Court. In the event that the New York Supreme Court does not approve the settlement, the defendants intend to defend against any further litigation.

Charter and Liberty Broadband - Delaware Litigation  

On August 21, 2015, a purported stockholder of Charter filed a lawsuit in the Delaware Court of Chancery (the “Court”), on behalf of a putative class of Charter stockholders, challenging the transactions between Charter, Time Warner Cable, A/N and Liberty Broadband announced by Charter on May 26, 2015 (collectively, the “Transactions”). The lawsuit is captioned Sciabacucchi v. Liberty Broadband Corp. , C.A. No. 11418-VCG (the “Delaware Action”), and names as defendants Liberty Broadband, Charter, the board of directors of Charter, and New Charter. Plaintiff alleged that the Transactions improperly benefit Liberty Broadband at the expense of other Charter s tockholders , and that Charter issued a false and misleading proxy statement in connection with the Transactions. Plaintiff requested, among other things, that the Court enjoin the September 21, 2015 special meeting of Charter stockholders at which Charter stockholders were asked to vote on the Transactions until the defendants disclosed certain information relating to Charter and the Transactions. The disclosures demanded by the plaintiff included (i) certain unlevered free cash flow projections for Charter and (ii) a Form of Proxy and Right of First Refusal Agreement (“Proxy”) by and among Liberty Broadband, A/N, Charter and New Charter, which was referenced in the description of the Second Amended and Restated Stockholders Agreement, dated May 23, 2015, among Charter, New Charter, Liberty Broadband and A/N. On September 9, 2015, Charter issued supplemental disclosures containing unlevered free cash flow projections for Charter . In return, the plaintiff agreed its disclosure claims were moot and withdrew its application to enjoin the Charter   stockholder vote on the Transactions. Charter has not yet responded to this suit but intends to deny any liability and believes th at it has substantial defenses.

Other   Charter Proceedings  

On January 15, 2014, the California Department of Justice, in conjunction with the Alameda County, California District Attorney s Office, initiated an investigation into whether Charter s waste disposal policies, practices, and procedures violate the provisions of the California Health and Safety Code, the California Hazardous Waste Control Law, and any of their related regulations. Charter is cooperating with the investigation. At this time Charter does not expect that its outcome will have a material effect on its operations, fina ncial condition, or cash flows.

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Charter is a defendant or co - defendant in several unrelated lawsuits involving alleged infringement of various patents relating to various aspects of its businesses. Other industry participants are also defendants in certain of these cases. In the event that a court ultimately determines that Charter infringes on any intellectual property rights, Charter may be subject to substantial damages and/or an injunction that could require Charter or its vendors to modify certain products and services it offers to its subscribers, as well as negotiate royalty or license agreements with respect to the patents at issue. While Charter believes the lawsuits are without merit and intends to defend the actions vigorously, no assurance can be given that any adverse outcome would not be material to Charter s consolidated financial condition, result s of operations, or liquidity.

Charter is also a party to other lawsuits and claims that arise in the ordinary course of conducting its business, including lawsuits claiming violation of anti - trust laws and violation of wage and hour laws. The ultimate outcome of these other legal matters pending against Charter or its subsidiaries cannot be predicted, and although such lawsuits and claims are not expected individually to have a material adverse effect on our or Charters consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity, such lawsuits could have in the aggregate a material adverse effect on ours or Charter s consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity. Whether or not Charter ultimately prevails in any particular lawsuit or claim, litigation can be time consuming and costly and injure its reputation.

Liberty Broadband

On August 21, 2015, a putative class action, captioned Cohen v. Malone, et al. , C.A. No. 11416-VCG, was filed against Liberty Broadband and each of its directors in the Court alleging that the proxy statement for Liberty Broadband’s September 23, 2015 special meeting of stockholders omitted material facts regarding the share issuance proposal.  The share issuance proposal asked stockholders to approve the issuance of shares of Liberty Broadband’s Series C common stock pursuant to the terms of certain amended and restated investment agreements entered into by Liberty Broadband with various investors and an amended and restated assignment and assumption of investment agreement entered into by Liberty Broadband, among others . The complaint sought, among other relief, (i) certification as a class action, (ii) an injunction against the stockholder vote on the share issuance proposal, (iii) compensatory damages in an unspecified amount and (iv) costs and attorneys’ fees. On September 11, 2015, Liberty Broadband filed a supplement to the Proxy Statement containing certain supplemental disclosures (the “Supplemental Disclosures”).  Counsel for the plaintiff thereafter advised that because the Supplemental Disclosures mooted the claims in the class action, plaintiff intended to dismiss the suit.  As a result of the parties’ subsequent negotiations, Liberty Broadband agreed to pay plaintiff’s counsel a fee in the amount of $450,000 for the benefits conferred on its stockholders by the Supplemental Disclosures (the “Agreed Fee”).  Plaintiff and plaintiff’s counsel have determined that the Agreed Fee is reasonable compensation for the benefits conferred, and plaintiff’s counsel has accordingly agreed that there is no need to petition the Court for a fee award. 

On January 11, 2016, the Court entered a stipulated order regarding notice of the proposed dismissal (the “Proposed Dismissal”) of all claims in the class action.  The order required Liberty Broadband to provide notice of the Proposed Dismissal and certain other information to its stockholders by way of a Current Report on Form 8-K, which Liberty Broadband filed on January 13, 2016.  On January 19 , 2016, the parties filed a Stipulation and [Proposed] Order of Dismissal, resulting in the Court’s dismissal of the class action on January 25 , 2016.  The plaintiff had determined to dismiss the complaint in the litigation with prejudice as to the named plaintiff.

TruePosition

On September 10, 2010, Skyhook filed a patent infringement lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts against Google. In March 2014, Skyhook amended its lawsuit to add additional claims. In total, Skyhook allege d that Google infring ed on eight Skyhook patents involving location technology and s ought an injunction and/or award of damages in an amount to b e determined at trial. The case   had been scheduled to be tried before a jury commencing March 9, 2015. On March 5, 2015, the District Court issued an order that states that the court was advised by the parties that the case has been settled and thereby dismissed the action without costs and without prejudice to the right person, upon good cause shown within 45 days, to reopen the action if settlement is not consummated .   On March 27, 2015, the parties consummated a final settlement agreement and on April 24, 2015, Google paid Skyhook settlement consideration of $90 million. In return for payment of the settlement consideration, Google received dismissal of the action with prejudice, a license to the existing Skyhook patents and patent applications (and their continuations, divisionals, continuations-in-part), a three-year covenant not to sue (subject to limited exceptions) and a mutual release of claims.

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In the normal course of business, TruePosition provides indemnification to certain customers against specified claims that might arise against those customers from the use of TruePosition s products. During October 2015, TruePosition made a payment of $55 thousand to settle an indemnification claim. To date, TruePosition has not made any significant reimbursements to any of its customers for any losses related to these indemnification provisions. Although five such claims are currently pending, no legal proceedings have been instituted with respect to such claims. TruePosition is unable to estimate the maximum potential impact of these indemnification provisions on its future results of operations, although TruePosition s liabilities in certain of those arrangements are customarily limited in various respects, including monetarily.

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosure s

Not applicable.

 

 

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PART I I

Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters of Equity Securities .

Market Information

Each series of our common stock has been outstanding since November 2014.  Our Series A and Series C common stock trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbols “LBRDA” and “LBRDK,” respectively.  Our Series B common stock is eligible for quotation on the OTC Markets under the symbol LBRDB, but it is not actively traded.  The following table sets forth the quarterly range of high and low sales prices of shares of each series of our common stock for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 for the periods they were outstanding.  With respect to our Series B common stock, this information represents inter-dealer prices without dealer mark-ups, mark-downs or commissions, and may not be indicative of the value of the common stock or the existence of an active market.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liberty Broadband Corporation

 

 

 

Series A

 

Series B

 

Series C

 

 

 

(LBRDA)

 

(LBRDB)

 

(LBRDK)

 

 

    

High

    

Low

    

High

    

Low

    

High

    

Low

 

2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourth quarter (after November 4, 2014)

 

$

55.35

 

44.63

 

50.00

 

48.00

 

54.74

 

42.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First quarter

 

$

58.13

 

44.08

 

60.01

 

43.09

 

58.07

 

44.06

 

Second quarter

 

$

56.60

 

49.80

 

60.01

 

51.67

 

56.80

 

49.99

 

Third quarter

 

$

57.28

 

49.50

 

56.30

 

50.23

 

56.03

 

48.28

 

Fourth quarter

 

$

56.10

 

48.80

 

55.07

 

51.53

 

59.70

 

48.99

 

 

Holders

As of January 31 ,   201 6 , there were 949 ,   70 and 1,207   holders of our Series A, Series B and Series C common stock, respectively.  The foregoing numbers of record holders do not include the number of stockholders whose shares are held nominally by banks, brokerage houses or other institutions, but include each such institution as one shareholder.

Dividends

We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and we have no present intention of so doing.  Payment of cash dividends, if any, in the future will be determined by our board of directors in light of our earnings, financial condition and other relevant considerations.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

Information required by this item is incorporated by reference to our definitive proxy statement for our 201 6 Annual Meeting of stockholders.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer  

There were no repurchases of Series A, B or C Liberty Broadband common stock during the period. During the three months ended December 31, 2015, 1,254 shares of Series A Liberty Broadband common stock and 2,256 shares of Series C Liberty Broadband common stock were surrendered by certain of our officers and employees to pay withholding taxes and other deductions in connection with the vesting of their restricted stock.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data .

The following tables present selected historical information relating to our financial condition and results of operations for the past five years. The following data should be read in conjunction with our c onsolidate d financial statements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2011 (3)

 

Summary Balance Sheet Data:

 

 

amounts in thousands

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

655,079

    

44,809

    

9,251

    

10,031

    

30,890

 

Investments in available for sale securities

 

$

439,560

 

360,762

 

326,700

 

232,648

 

151,581

 

Investment in affiliates, accounted for using the equity method (2)

 

$

2,372,699

 

2,498,804

 

2,402,024

 

 

 

Intangible assets not subject to amortization (1)

 

$

6,497

 

27,166

 

20,669

 

20,669

 

20,669

 

Intangible assets subject to amortization, net (1)

 

$

11,887

 

12,915

 

429

 

1,562

 

3,645

 

Net deferred income tax assets

 

$

55,368

 

30,822

 

 —

 

 —

 

 —

 

Total assets

 

$

3,565,741

 

3,003,471

 

2,891,781

 

306,786

 

247,084

 

Long-term debt

 

$

399,703

 

371,539

 

 —

 

 —

 

 —

 

Net deferred income tax liabilities

 

$

 —

 

 —

 

6,740

 

34,166

 

13,722

 

Total equity (deficit)

 

$

3,148,219

 

2,494,769

 

2,779,194

 

196,459

 

161,128

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2015

 

2014

 

2013

 

2012

 

2011 (3)

 

Summary Statement of Operations Data:

 

 

amounts in thousands, except per share amounts

 

Revenue

 

$

91,182

    

69,045

    

77,363

    

83,098

    

1,136,934

 

Operating income (loss)

 

$

58,955

 

(42,974)

 

(88)

 

7,879

 

640,359

 

Share of earnings (losses) of affiliate (2)

 

$

(120,962)

 

(127,573)

 

(76,090)

 

 —

 

 

Realized and unrealized gains (losses) on financial instruments

 

$

2,619

 

51,189

 

97,860

 

57,582

 

(4,150)

 

Gain (loss) on dilution of investment in affiliate

 

$

(7,198)

 

(87,158)

 

(92,933)

 

 —

 

 

Net earnings (loss) attributable to Liberty Broadband shareholders

 

$

(50,187)

 

(134,605)

 

(41,728)

 

44,196

 

607,374

 

Basic earnings (loss) per common share (4)

 

$

(0.49)

 

(1.52)

 

(0.47)

 

0.50

 

6.88

 

Diluted earnings (loss) per common share (4)

 

$

(0.49)

 

(1.52)

 

(0.47)

 

0.50

 

6.88

 


(1)

As discussed in note  2 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, TruePosition acquired 100% of the outstanding common shares of Skyhook, a Delaware corporation, on February 14, 2014 for approximately $57.5 million in cash.

(2)

As discussed in note  6   to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, in May 2013, Liberty acquired approximately 26.9 million shares of common stock and approximately 1.1 million warrants in Charter for approximately $2.6 billion, which represented an approximate 27% beneficial ownership in Charter at the time of purchase.

(3)

In 2011 TruePosition recognized $1,014 million of previously deferred revenue and $405 million of deferred costs associated with two separate contracts.

(4)

We issued 85,761,332 common shares, which is the aggregate number of shares of Series A, Series B and Series C common stock outstanding upon the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off on November 4, 2014. Additionally, Liberty Broadband distributed subscription rights, which were priced at a discount to the market value, to all holders of Liberty Broadband common stock as of the rights record date Because of the discount, the rights offering is considered a stock dividend which requires retroactive treatment for prior periods for the weighted average shares outstanding based on a factor determined by the fair value per share immediately prior to the rights exercise and the theoretical fair value after

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the rights exercise. The number of shares issued upon completion of the Broadband Spin-Off, adjusted for the rights factor, was used to determine both basic and diluted earnings (loss) per share (“EPS”) for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 and for the period from January 1, 2014 through the date of the Broadband Spin-Off, as no Company equity awards were outstanding prior to the Broadband Spin-Off. Basic EPS subsequent to the Broadband Spin-Off was computed using the weighted average number of shares outstanding (“WASO”) , adjusted for the rights factor, from the date of the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off through January 9, 2015 , the date on which the rights offering was fully subscribed . Diluted EPS subsequent to the Broadband Spin-Off was computed using the WASO from the date of the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off through January 9, 2015 , adjusted for the rights factor and potentially dilutive equity awards outstanding during the same period .   Subsequent to January 9, 2015, basic EPS was computed using the WASO during the period, and diluted EPS was computed using the WASO adjusted for potentially dilutive equity awards outstanding during the period.

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Item 7.  Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation s

The following discussion and analysis provides information concerning our results of operations and financial condition. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our accompanying consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto.

Overview

During May 2014, the board of directors of Liberty Media Corporation and its subsidiaries ( Liberty ) authorized management to pursue a plan to spin - off to its stockholders common stock of a wholly - owned subsidiary, Liberty Broadband Corporation ( Liberty Broadband ), and to distribute subscription rights to acquire shares of Liberty Broadband s common stock (the Broadband Spin - Off ). At 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on November 4, 2014, the Broadband Spin-Off was completed and shares of Liberty Broadband common stock were distributed to the shareholders of Liberty as of a record date of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on October 29, 2014 . Liberty Broadband is comprised of, among other things, (i) Liberty’s former  interest in Charter Communications, Inc. (“Charter”), (ii)  Liberty’s former wholly-owned subsidiary TruePosition, Inc. (“TruePosition”), (iii)  Liberty’s former minority equity investment in Time Warner Cable, Inc. (“Time Warner Cable or “TWC” ), (iv) certain deferred tax liabilities, as well as liabilities related to the Time Warner Cable written call option s and (v) initial indebtedness, pursuant to margin loans entered into prior to the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The Broadband Spin-Off was accounted for at historical cost due to the pro rata nature of the distribution to holders of Liberty common stock.

In the Broadband Spin-Off, record holders of Liberty Series A, Series B and Series C common stock receive d one-fourth of a share of the corresponding series of Liberty Broadband common stock for each share of Liberty common stock held by them as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time on October 29, 2014 ( the record date ) for the Broadband Spin-Off, with cash paid in lieu of fractional shares.   In addition, following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off, on December 10, 2014, stockholders received a subscription right to acquire one share of Series C Liberty Broadband common stock for every five shares of Liberty Broadband common stock they held as of 5:00 p.m., New York City time, on December 4, 2014 (the rights record date) at a per share subscription price of $40.36, which was a 20% discount to the 20-trading day volume weighted average trading price of the Series C Liberty Broadband common stock following the completion of the Broadband Spin-Off. The rights offering was fully subscribed on January 9, 2015, with 17,277,224 shares of Series C common stock issued to those rightsholders exercising basic and, as applicable, oversubscription privileges. The subscription rights were issued to raise capital for general corporate purposes of Liberty Broadband.   The Broadband Spin-Off and rights offering were intended to be tax-free to stockholders of Liberty.   During September 2015, Liberty entered into a closing agreement with the IRS which provided that the Broadband Spin-Off qualified for tax-free treatment.

The financial information represents a combination of the historical financial information of TruePosition, Liberty Broadband ’s interest in Charter, Liberty’s minority equity investment in Time Warner Cable and certain deferred tax liabilities, as well as liabilities related to the T ime Warner Cable written call option s . This financial information refers to the combination of the aforementioned subsidiary, investments, and financial instruments, as “ Liberty Broadband,” “the Company,” “us,” “we” and “our” here and in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

Strategies and Challenges

Executive Summary

Our results prior to May 2013 were largely dependent on the operating performance of TruePosition. In 2013 and future periods, results for Liberty Broadband will be largely dependent upon the operating performance of Charter. Therefore, the executive summary below contains the strategies and challenges of TruePosition and Charter.

TruePosition was incorporated on November 24, 1992. TruePosition develops and markets technology for locating wireless phones and other wireless devices on a cellular netw ork, enabling wireless carriers to provide public safety E-9-1-1 services domestically and to enhance services in support of commercial applications, national security and law enforcement worldwide. “E-9-1- 1” refers to a series of FCC mandate s requiring wireless carriers to implement and continuously improve the ability to locate wireless callers requesting emergency services . Prior to 2015, TruePosition’s location system offering was a passive network overlay system u sing its patented U-TDOA technology.   In 2015, TruePosition ceased making further investment in its U-TDOA based product offering and commenced the development and marketing of TrueFix, a location offering which is

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an extension of Skyhook’s WiFi location technolo